Tag: Landscape

Lush Landscape Design, Parking Lot Construction, Outdoor Lighting Solutions, & Ice Machines

As an interior designer, my work isn’t finished just onthe interior.

We need to do the outside as well.

I need to redothe parking lot and landscaping because I rezoned this buildingfrom a manufacturing plant into an office space, which requiresa lot more parking.

For Mark, first impressions are critical,and there’s a lot of work to be done to bring some curb appeal.

First off, before my design plan for this space can even getunderway, demolition of the old concrete is needed, as well asremoval of invasive trees surrounding the parking lot.

Forthis, I’ve turned to Darren, from 4 Evergreen Landscaping,and Nick and Edgard from U.


Pave, to get the job done.

It’sall under the careful eye of Construction Site Supervisor,Mark Furman.

For remodeling the existing parking lot it is veryimportant we don’t disturb any utilities in the ground as weremove trees, and this way U.


Pave can get started on theright foot also.

When Kalyn first came to us, you know, hermain objective was to do the best job possible.

They’re gonnaspend all this focus, time and energy inside the building andon the outside of the building, there needs to be that sameamount of focus and energy put into the parking lot area.

Allthe existing concrete poles you guys will be removing and thenwe have new poles that will be going in.

We have some existingconcrete poles and lighting that are being removed andwe’re putting insome new aluminum poles and Acuity lighting, whichis really nice LED lighting.

There’s a few differentlocations for our photo metrics on the parking lot so we’reproperly lit and evenly lit all the way around.

So, thedemolition and tree removal work is complete.

And now begins theactual site work to create a new parking lot and landscaping forBrandstar.

It will mean a lot of people working onsite at once,and hopefully staying out of each others way.

We have so manymoving parts and pieces with the exterior portion of thisbuilding.

We have the painters, the landscapers, the pavers, thesignage.

It’s a lot of moving parts and pieces and I’m reallyhoping that everyone can work together.

You have thelandscaper who’s putting new landscape in, and U.


Pave,obviously is doing the restructuring and recreating thenew parking lot.

The electrician, we need tocoordinate with him because he has conduits running through theparking lot.

So, I was only too happy when Edgard and Nick, andhis wife, Hillary, from U.


Pave,assured me that they would take care of every aspect of turningthis old parking lot into a dazzling new parking area foremployees.

We’re gonna take care of every inch of the parkinglot.

From the moment you step out onto the sidewalk – that’sall U.



Before any asphalt can be laid; however,the soil deep beneath the parking lot must be properlyprepared for density tests and the addition of lime rock.

Wetest the sub grade first to make sure the the sub grade is strongenough to carry the load, then obviously, we make sure that thebase rock also is very strong.

The asphalt is just the makeupon the pretty face.

You know what I mean? If the soilunderneath the asphalt is not compacted properly then thesoil, obviously, will shift with time as it settles down.

And,the asphalt will crack and we will develop cracks on theasphalt.

The ultimate goal of U.


Pave is to provide aparking lot that is stable and it looks good.

Not only just inappearance but also technically as a solid parking lot.

The newarchitecture on the building and the paint colors on the signagecan only take you so far for curb appeal.

So, it’s reallyimportant that we nail the landscaping and get it right.

So, I’m excited to see what you brought for me today.

Let’s runthrough it and tell me some of your thoughts and your proposal.

OK, since we’re talking about the entrance, we thought wewould use Bromeliads, they give you a lot of color, textures.

They look good all year.

So, we thought we would use them forthe entrance so you have a lot of impact there.

OK, in conceptI love it.

I love the black rocks – I love the pavers, andthe Bromeliad, I love that idea.

My vision here is to have a lotof impact when you come in, on the buildings, at the buildingat the entrance, and I think what we’re gonna do is we’regonna get color from the foliage rather than flowers, so thingslook the same all year.

So, I just met with Darren and Oscarback at the office and they showed me a wide variety ofBromeliads.

Now they told me that they got them from a placein Southwest Ranches, Florida, called Sunshine BromeliadsNursery, which specializes only in Bromeliads.

Owner, RolandoRodriguez, is quick to explain why he thinks Bromeliads makethe perfect landscape for an office space.

You know, when aclient comes into your office you wanna give that wow factor.


And the Bromeliads give that with all the different typeof colors.

So, with Darren joining us at the nursery, itwas the perfect time to choose the exact Bromeliads needed forthe office space entrance.

This is a plant that I wouldrecommend you guys use.

It’s the Alcantarea Imperialis.

What Ilike about it, especially in the corporate environment, forliability purpose I guess, it has, it doesn’t have any spines.


It’s spineless and it gives an incredible bloom that’s like6-feet high, that will be very very nice.

Wow, OK.

You canplant them across the bed and use them for height and then dosmaller ones in between.

I love it.

Let’s do it, let’s put themin the truck.


Let’s go Darren, get it done.

I reallythink we’ve made the right decision in choosing Bromeliadplants to really bring some curb appeal and that wow factor tothe front of our building.

(Music)It’s a really big day today here for U.



They’re finallylaying the asphalt and we’re very excited to see it all cometogether.

It’s a madhouse of activity, it’s a totallygorgeous day.

We’ve got rollers, pavers, a truck full of asphalt.

It’s all gonna happen and I’m so excited to watch.

So we made it.

So we made it.

So we finally made it.


We’re up forinspections of course.


But, we’re here and there’s so muchgoing on today and, but I’m so excited that we’re gonna have abrand new parking lot.

Yes, it’ll be pretty, as pretty as aparking lot can be, that’s what we’re gonna be.

And in thiscase, it’s a beautiful parking lot, that’s also environmentallygreen.

The biggest way you’re gonna see the uniqueness on thisproject is our material that we use for our sealcoat.

To betterprotect the asphalt and to give it more longevity, more life init, you sealcoat it.

You place the sealcoat, and the sealcoatis what seals the asphalt from the outer elements.

We figuredout a few years ago how to liquify tire rubber.

It’s ablacker finish – it’s a more satin finish.

It’ll last 18times longer, than regular sealcoat.

The green side of it,on this parking lot alone, will recycle about 215 tires.

Thegreening of the Brandstar campus is just getting started.

As the4 Evergreen trucks roll in, filled with palm trees and plantlife.

Bromeliads are planted at the front entrance, for thatsplash of color.

And the holes are dug for the majestic SabalPalms to stand tall overhead.

The first thing you see is thelandscaping, even before you enter the building.

So, we wannagive you that wow factor.

Today we’re installing the Hardwoodtrees and some palms.

We have some silver Buttonwoods thatwe’re planting right here, and then behind us is the greenButtonwoods.

So it’s a little contrast.

You’ll plant one ofthese and then according to the scale of the drawing, every inchis equal to 20 feet, so the next one is gonna go on center 20feet from this one.

Nearly every type of grass, tree, andfoliage, you can imagine is being planted today.

And ourexterior is coming alive.

4 Evergreen has truly lived up toits name with this canopy of green around Brandstar.

So as night falls and the outdoor lighting by Acuity,lights up the parking lot, next to a beaming Brandstar logo, theday we’ve all been waiting for finally arrives.

There’s stillsome final touches to be done in the morning before the grandopening of this office space.

Ever Green Irrigation is back tofinish up with the irrigation for our new landscaping.



Pave created the curbing and they are now adding pavers tothe crosswalk, and re-striping the parking spaces.

And FollettCorporation has sent ice machines to be installed in thekitchen to help keep us cool for the big party.

Source: Youtube

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Passionate About Landscaping also servicesany custom requests such as Barbecues, firepits, outdoor bars and kitchens, shade structuresand more.

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We offer all aspects of tree services, includingtree & tree stump removal services as well as tree trimming, pruning and transplanting.

During the landscaping process, we are happyto make any changes that you want done.

We want your complete satisfaction.

This meansfixing any problems, making any changes, and followingthrough on our promises.

We stand behind our work 120%.

This adherenceto quality has given people the confidence to refer us to their friends and family.

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For any yard work or landscaping project,trust in Passionate About Landscaping to beautify the exterior of your home or business.

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Source: Youtube

Landscape Horticulture Western

[ Instructor talking students through the work ] Pete >> Landscape horticulture is such a wide field.

but a lot of what we work with is with plants.

What we do a lot of work on is to to get the right plant in the right place.

I think the students learn best — and welike teaching best — with the hands-on opportunity.

So the more hands-on we can give them, the more they like it, and the more they remember and are able to apply it when they're out in the field.

[ To students: "It's going to get about 30 ft.

tall and only be about.

5 ft.

wide" ] Any campus can be used as a living and learning lab.

[ to students: "what is the value of the wood mulch?" ] And of course in landscape, there's no better opportunity, because everywhere you walk and go, it's a living and learning lab.

Sara >> I chose a technical college because I felt it would be.

appropriate for my career going forward.

It's hands-on, right now, the things that Ineed to learn to go forward in the career that I want to pursue.

I'm learning.

The instructors here have taught me everything.

There's so many different directions you can go.

[ Instructor talking to students ] Pete >> The job market is strong; we can really prepare them well to get the opportunity to knock on that door.

You don't find very many people in the field are not happy; people are happy in this area –because they really love doing what they're doing.

Source: Youtube

Landscape Preference

Hello, my name is Dr.

Ann Marie VanDerZanden.

I am a professor of horticulture at Iowa StateUniversity.

and I'd like to welcome you to the Online Garden Design Course.

The module I will be presenting is: LandscapePreference: understanding our connections to plants and nature.

In this presentation I will discuss what weknow about the connections between plants and people to help provide an overarchingcontext for landscape design.

I will also discuss why we as humans prefersome landscape settings over other settings.

This is broadly termed landscape preference.

The concept of landscape preference is groundedin to theories: Behavioral Theory and Humanistic Theory I like to include a brief overview of thesetwo theories because for me when I first started studying landscape preference, once i understoodmore about basic human motivation, I started to understand more about why some landscapesare so wonderful to be in, while others made me feel uncomfortable.

To get started, I first want to talk aboutthe people-plant connection.

There is a large body of research that hasexplored the impact that plants have on our daily lives and overall well-being.

Two areas of research I would like to mention are related to employees and to hospital patients.

In the first study research showed that workers who could see trees and flowers outside from their work station reported their jobs to be less stressful and more satisfying.

And they also had fewer days away from work for medical ailments.

In the studies of hospital patients data showed that those who hadviews of the outside where they could see plants, healed faster, had shorter hospital stays, and required less pain medication.

In these two images I am sharing two of myfavorite, or preferred landscapes.

Both of these places were very specialto me as a child, and even looking at them now, they conjure up wonderful memories.

The deep personal connections we have to landscapes-either natural or those that are built- shouldn’t be underestimated.

This landscape showcases just how personallandscape preference can be.

A student shared this picture with me aftertaking my design courses.

Her point was that this person preferred havinga lot of garden ornamentation in their landscape Next, I will talk about the two differenttheories that support the broad concept of landscape preference.

The first theory I will discuss is BehavioralAssessment.

This concept is rooted in the biological needwe as humans have to survive when we are outside.

In order for our ancestors to survive theoutside spaces they were in, the space itself needed to provide the appropriate habitat.

This is the focus of Habitat Theory.

While in these outdoor spaces we also needto be safe and protected from danger such as wild animals.

And safety is the basis for the Prospect-RefugeTheory.

I’ll come back to the Humanistic Theoryshortly.

The concept of Habitat Theory is pretty straightforward.

As humans we prefer habitats or outdoor spaces that support our survival.

Outdoor spaces that support our survival oftenoffer us the ability to moderate temperature and the amount of exposure (such as sunlight, rain, or wind,) that we experience.

These spaces also provide food and often water.

And they also provide some security and shelter.

The shelter piece is associated with moderatingthe temperature and exposure to elements.

The landscape in this image is a great exampleof an outdoor space that supports the Habitat Theory.

You can see the three sided structure whichmoderates temperature, exposure and provides shelter and security.

There is also a water feature present, Whatisn’t evident is whether or not the space provides food as well.

In modern society that may not be as important.

However an important feature in today’slandscapes is the use of outdoor furniture or other creature comforts that make the landscape feel morelike our homes.

The image on the left has two outdoor livingspaces a deck and patio, and both of them are too exposed to be comfortable.

As a result they do not support the habitattheory very well.

The outdoor living space in the image on theright, better supports the habitat theory.

The space is protected on at least two sides,and the overhead canopy of the trees also creates a sense of enclosure.

Prospect-Refuge Theory is the second partof Behavioral Assessment.

In simple terms we like to be in landscapeswhere we can see (prospect) with out being seen (refuge).

This is one reason the front porch is suchan important part of the landscape.

As a homeowner, I can sit on my porch andwatch the goings on of the neighborhood, but due to some strategically planted shrubs,I’m tucked away a little so everyone driving up and down the street doesn’t fully seeme.

The image on this slide illustrates an exposeddeck with no ‘refuge’, as well as a deck with a small lattice structure added whichdoes provide some protection and as a result ‘refuge’ in the back yard.

Now that I’ve talked about BehavioralAssessment concept as it relates to landscape preference, the next area I want to talk aboutit the Humanistic Assessment.

Humanistic assessment deals with what we ‘learn’about a landscape.

As human we always try to make sense of oursurroundings.

At a most basic level it helps us survivebeing outside.

On a more developed level it helps us enjoyand appreciate being in a space.

It helps us understand how we feel in thespace, and ultimately if we want to stay in that space.

Some specific examples of what we processmentally whenwe enter into an outdoor living space are: Does it seem familiar? Are there distinct patterns? and is it engaging- mentally, physically, or emotionally? Once we decide to stay in a outdoor livingspace, our mind then starts processing four 4 main factors.

Each of these factors significantly influencesour preference for a landscape and include: Coherence, Complexity,Legibility, Mystery.

Coherence is the underlying feel that a landscapeconveys.

A landscape with coherence has a sense oforder to it.

And often this sense of order comes from repetitionof individual elements in the landscape.

Coherent landscape ‘fits together’.

In this image the landscape exhibits a lotof coherence because of the repetition of curves plant materials such as shrubs and ground covers and the green colors Complexity is the second preference factor and gets atour need for landscapes to be mentally engaging.

Complexity provides this by providing a varietyof elements for us to look at.

However, there needs to be a comfortable balancebetween visual chaos and boredom.

The planting bed in this image has a mix ofbright colors (yellow and red) and more subdued colors (green and purple).

This combination provides a good amount of visual interest.

on of curves, plant materials (shrubs andgroundcovers) and the green color.

Legibility is the third factor that influenceslandscape preference.

The concept of legibility is important becauseit is the factor that enables us to understand or ‘read’ a landscape.

For example, when we walk into an outdoorspace one of the first questions that enters our mind is “Will I get lost if I ventureinto the space?” Can I find my way back to the starting place? Are there clues that will help with my way-finding? This image shows pathways, arbors overthe paths, and focal points that all help guide a person through the landscape.

Each of these can be considered visual cuesthat help a person know how to move through the space.

These two images further illustrate legibilityin the landscape.

The landscapes in both images have an obviousfocal point: the gazebo at the end of the lawn area in the image on the left; and thewhite arbor and white lawn chairs in the image on the right.

Both landscapes also offer a clear way toget to the focal point.

In both cases the way to the focal point isclear both visually because of a mostly unobstructed view, and also physically because there isa clear path to walk in order to reach the focal point.

Mystery is the fourth element that influencesour landscape preferences.

And research shows that mystery is the mostimportant of the four factors.

This is because as humans we are curious bynature.

We want to be in outdoor spaces that giveus a sense that there is more to learn or experience in the landscape than just whatwe see when we are standing in one location.

The sidewalk in this image is a great exampleof mystery.

The vantage point that the photo was takenfrom, shows a clear way to move through the landscape, suggesting it is a legible space,but there is also a corner at the end of the far end of the sidewalk that shows that the sidewalkcontinues for quite some distance and that there is more to be experienced in the landscapethan just what can be seen.

The image on the left gets at the age oldquestion- What’s around the corner? There is a clear way to explore that, butit is unclear where the path ends which provides a sense of mystery.

The image on the right makes a person wonder:What is behind the gate? Because you can see through the iron gateit is clear that there is something of interest on the other side.

But you won’t know exactly what is in thereuntil you open the gate and begin to explore that part of the landscape.

This brings me to the conclusion of this presentationon landscape preference and understanding the connections we have to plants and nature.

In summary, this presentation has highlightedthat there is substantial evidence, both anecdotal and research based, that plants and naturaland built landscapes play an important role in our lives.

Further, what we know about landscape preferenceshows that preference is both in our genes and learned.

Our individual preferences are present everytime we experience an outdoor space.

And finally, the four key landscape characteristics:coherence, complexity, legibility and mystery, that I highlighted are universal to the overallconcept of landscape preference.

I hope that you've enjoyed this presentationon landscape preference as part of the Iowa State University Department of HorticultureOnline Garden Design Course.

Source: Youtube

Starting the Landscape Design Process

Hello, my name is Dr.

Ann Marie VanDerZanden.

I am a professor of horticulture at Iowa StateUniversity.

Welcome to the Online Garden Design Course.

The title of the module I will be presentingis: Starting the Landscape Design Process.

This presentation will focus on how to get starteddesigning a landscape.

To do this I will provide an overview of thedesign process.

More information about how to implement themultiple phases of the design process will be discussed in more detail in other modulesof this online design course.

I will also talk about the broad concept ofchoosing a design style.

And finally, I will talk about the three differentuse areas found in most residential landscapes and the ways these spaces are used and thecharacteristics that they have.

When I first start talking about the landscapedesign process I often use this quote from a BBC (the British Broadcasting Company) radioprogram I heard a number of years ago.

The quote “Planting a garden is like hittingsomething with a stick: it can be music, or it can be noise” resonates with me.

Landscape design is a process.

And sometimes the end product is successful-hence the reference to music.

Other times it can be less successful in whichcase it is more like noise.

As a designer I think it is important to realizesometimes you will make noise, but other times you will make beautiful music.

I’ve included this flow chart graphic to provide context for the overall design process andproducts.

What I will be discussing in this presentationinfluences the design, but not specific items that necessarily result from the design process.

The information identified during the sitedocumentation process and the program requirements are ultimately combined to create functional diagrams,which are then followed by a preliminary design and then finally a master plan.

This part of the design process will be discussedin detail in a separate module as I mentioned earlier.

I’ve included this graphic to illustratethat the overall design process is an iterative one that includes multiple points to reflectand reevaluate on decisions that were made.

First, you accept the situation and the challengesand opportunities created by the site to be designed.

Next, you analyze what you have to work withon the site and begin making some initial decisions.

Next, you begin defining the scope of the workand determining what is realistic.

This is followed by generating different design ideas.

From this list of ideas some are selectedand then implemented into the actual landscape installation.

And finally, once the landscape has been installedit needs to be evaluated to see how it is doing.

The graphic shows that at each step the designershould reflect on decisions and make appropriate changes where necessary.

Now let’s focus on choosing a design style.

Choosing a design style creates the basisfor many of the future design decisions that will be made.

Most often in residential landscapes, thestyle of the house significantly influences the design style.

This modern style house lends itself to alandscape that has strong geometric shapes.

It might also include a more minimalist plantingstyle which works well with mid-century modern architecture.

The symmetrical architecture of a colonialstyle home can easily be translated into a symmetrical or more formal landscape design.

This landscape shows strong symmetrical balancewith the walkway and front door being the central axis of the design.

You can see by dividing the landscapein half along the central axis, the plantings on the left side are mirrored on the rightside.

Even the sheared topiaries in containers nextto the house and the sheared hedges reinforce the symmetry.

Single-story ranch style homes are ubiquitousthroughout the American landscape.

And although the architecture of a ranch stylehome tends to be somewhat boxy, the single story height allows for a full range of differentdesign styles.

Some designers will create strong visual contrastby designing large foundation planting beds with broad sweeping curves.

In other instances, they will accentuate theboxy style of architecture by using straight bedlines.

In some respects a ranch style home lendsitself to the greatest opportunity for different design styles.

The next overarching concept to consideris determining how the different areas within a landscape will be used.

Most residential landscapes have 3 main areas:the public area, the living or private area, and the service area.

Each of these three areas have different functionswithin the landscape, and as such each also has its own unique set of characteristics.

To help people visualize this concept, I oftenliken use areas to the rooms within a home.

For example the public area is like a formalliving room.

The living or private area is like a familyroom.

And the service area is like a utility orlaundry room.

The public area in the front yard of mostproperties It is the space between the front of the houseand the street.

In this space, trees should be planted toframe the house.

An easy way to do this is to plant trees ata 45 degree angle from the corner of the house.

The image shows shade trees on the right sideof the house planted at roughly a 45 degree angle.

Shrubs with a variety of heights and shapesshould be planted in the front, particularly those that are planted as foundation plantingsadjacent to the house.

This helps soften the transition from theridged and linear shape of the house to the more natural shapes found in the landscape.

The living area or private area is most oftenthe backyard.

This is a private space used by the clientand not a space others will necessarily see.

The rules, if you will, in this space area little more relaxed, and the elements included in the space should be selected to meet theneeds of the client and how they will use use the space.

Plantings in this area should be soul-satisfyingand aesthetic.

Include plants here that really help increasethe landscape preference a person will feel in the space.

There should be some type of enclosure suchas fence, plants, or a combination of both to help create the walls of an outdoor roomand provide privacy from the neighbors.

The materials used on the ground surface needto be selected to accommodate how the space will be used.

For example, is there a need for a large turfarea for kids to play? Or does there need to be a patio space largeenough to entertain guests? And finally this is where a homeowner canshowcase their collection of garden gnomes or other types of garden embellishments.

I liken these to the home accessories thatreally customize an outdoor living space.

Please take a few minutes and look closelyat the image on this slide and see how many examples from these four categories you canidentify in this backyard.

I’ve included this image as another exampleof a living area in a landscape.

I’ve highlighted the enclosures with bluearrows.

These are a gazebo and a lattice fence.

The home accessories are highlighted withthe yellow arrows and include an outdoor dining set and a metal sculpture.

You can see the plantings are an interestingmix of color, textures, and shapes.

And finally there are two different groundsurfaces, each of which serves a different need.

A solid stone patio for the dining set, andgravel for the walkway.

These are identified with the purple arrows.

The final use area in a landscape is the servicearea.

The key features of a service area includethat it is screened from view, but that it is still accessible.

No matter how lovely your compost area mightbe, it still shouldn’t be used as a focal point of a back yard.

The yellow arrow shows how a compost bin canbe discreetly tucked at the edge of this backyard.

It is still functional, but not out in plainview for people who might be sitting on the patio looking in to the backyard.

This brings me to the conclusion of this presentationon starting the landscape design process.

In summary, this presentation highlightedthe overall design process including the different products that are created throughout the designprocess and how it is an iterative process.

I also described how to chose a design stylefor a landscape and the influence a home’s architecture has on that.

And finally, I outlined the three use areaswithin a landscape, the function they perform, and the characteristics of each area.

I hope you have enjoyed this presentationon starting the design process as part of the Iowa State University Department of HorticultureOnline Garden Design Course.

Source: Youtube

Applying the Landscape Design Principles

Hello, my name is Dr.

Ann Marie VanDerZanden.

I am a professor of horticulture at Iowa StateUniversity.

Welcome to the Online Garden Design Course.

The module I will be presenting is titled:Applying Landscape Design Principles.

In this presentation I will discuss the sixcommon landscape design principles.

These principles are: 1.

Simplicity, 2.

Order or Design Framework, 3.

Repetition, 4.

Balance, 5.

Scale and Proportion, 6.


I like to organize the design principles intotwo different categories based loosely on how they influence the landscape.

The first group are those principles thatinfluence how the landscape looks.

This group includes simplicity, balance, proportionand scale, and emphais.

The second group influence how the landscapeis organized.

This group includes order or design framework,and repetition.

Although I’ve grouped these in two categories, the reality is that there is a lot of overlap between the two of them and they really do impact each other.

The first principle I will discuss is Simplicity.

I think this is one of the easiest principlesto identify in a landscape.

Simplicity can be divided into two categories: physical simplicity and visual simplicity.

Physical simplicity is evident when the shapeswithin the garden are simple.

For example the top image on the slide hasa simple circle lawn and square stepping stones.

The bottom image also has a simple and gentlycurving bedline.

Visual simplicity relates to how the landscapelooks, and it is often reinforced by physical simplicity.

In visual simplicity plants are grouped ormassed rather than lined up as individual entities.

You can see examples of plant masses in thebottom image on the slide.

Further examples of visual simplicity cancome from uniform paving materials, simple and natural plant forms, and repetition ofplants and colors.

I think the captions speak for themselvesin this slide The second principle is order or design framework.

When this principle is implemented well, itgives the landscape an overall framework where individual elements such as a patio, plantingbeds, water feature, etc, can all be added.

The principle helps the overall landscapemake sense.

Order or design framework is often linkedto the overarching theme that a landscape has such as formal, informal or a hybrid structuredinformality look and feel.

I’ll talk more about these in just a moment.

This principle also helps define rooms withina landscape, such as a back yard entertaining area.

It also helps make a physical link betweenthe landscape and the house.

The blue arrows on this slide’s image showhow the designer aligned the corner of the patio space with the corner of the house creatinga connection between the two elements.

The three images here represent three differentframeworks: formal, informal and structured informal which is a blend of the two.

A formal design often includes symmetricalbalance where a landscape can be divided in half along a central axis and each side ofthe landscape is a mirror image.

They are also mostly linear in layout Informal designs tend to have asymmetricalbalance.

In this case if the landscape were dividedin half there wouldn’t be a mirror image on either side of the axis, but there wouldbe similar amount of visual weight on either side of the axis I will talk more about this in the sectionon Balance in just a few slides.

Structured formal is a combination of both frameworks and tends to take on many different looks.

To illustrate those different looks, this image has been included.

It shows a design that has structured informality.

There are some linear elements but not mirrorsymmetry.

This is probably my favorite design framework to create.

The principle of repetition can be very obviousor or in other cases it can be more subtle.

Repetition gives a landscape continuity byhaving various elements repeated multiple times throughout the design.

Examples of these elements include plants,colors, textures, and hardscape material.

The image on this slide has a number of examplesof repetition based on a pyramidal shape.

Examples include the pyramidal shape of theevergreen shrubs in the back-ground, the shape of the hydrangea flowers in the mid-ground;the shape of the ornamental grass flowers in the foreground and the shape of the obeliskstructure in the middle of the image.

Repetition is also seen through the limitedcolor scheme of just green and white.

Repetition doesn’t have to be monotonous.

The illustration on the left shows a centralaxis with small rectangles repeated at set distances along the length of it.

This is pretty monotonous.

The image on the right shows repetition withjust a little bit of variation.

In this case the alternating pattern of rectanglesand half circles are repeated rather than just the rectangles.

This type of repetition gives a little morevisual interest.

Balance is the fourth principle.

I’ve already referred to it when I discussedorder or design framework.

Symmetrical balance is characterized by acentral axis along which a landscape can be divided visually.

The sides on either side of the axis are amirror image of each other.

And although symmetrical balance is oftenassociated with landscapes that have a lot of linear or straight elements, it can beapplied to any landscape.

The two black lines on this image representtwo different central axis in this design.

Take a few minutes and look at how the designmirrors itself from one side to the other.

The other type of balance found in landscapesis asymmetrical.

In this case there is no obvious central axis.

Asymmetrical designs also tend to be moreinformal in their overall feel, and are often characterized by curvalinear planting beds.

These line drawings illustrate a front entryplanting with a symmetrical layout, the top image, and an asymmetrical layout in the bottomimage.

Although the plantings are not the same oneach side of the front door there is still a similar visual balance on either side of the central axis created by that front door.

Scale and proportion is the fifth design principle.

This principle takes into account the sizerelationships between the many different landscape features.

Common relationships to consider inlcude plantsto buildings, plants to other plants, and plants to people.

When designing a landscape it is importantto consider the mature size of the plants.

Although the proportion may be a little off-kilterthe first few years, once the plants reach a mature size the relationships should beappropriate.

This example of the landscape at Versaillesshows how important it is to consider the overall size and dimensions of the landscape.

Although the evergreen shrubs themselves aren’tparticularly large in the image on the left, the overall landscape area they are plantedin is, so the scale works with the massive size of the palace.

The image on the right is one of manywater features at Versailles and it illustrates the large scale of it relative to the visitors.

Clearly a small back yard pond wouldn’twork in this landscape context.

The final design principle is emphasis.

Emphasis is created by carefully situatedfocal points.

It is appropriate to include multiple focalpoints in a single landscape, since the entire landscape is usually not viewed from justone vantage point.

It’s important to situate them in differentlocations based on where the landscape is viewed from the most.

All of the images on this slide provide examplesof different focal points that provide emphasis.

This brings me to the conclusion of this presentationon applying landscape design principles.

In summary, this presentation has describedeach of the six landscape design principles including: Simplicity, Order or Design Framework,Repetition, Balance, Scale and Proportion, and Emphasis.

I’ve described a number of ways each principlecan be seen in a design, and how all of the principles work to provide a framework foreffective design.

I hope you have enjoyed this presentation on applying the lanscape design principles as part of the Iowa State University Department of HorticultureOnline Garden Design Course.

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