Should You Hire Landscaping Companies to Do Your Garden?

So you finally decided to do something aboutthat weed-filled plot of land in the back of your house that you would like to calla garden.

Good for you! The question now is, should you do it yourselfor should you try to find landscaping companies to do it for you? Contemplating whether or not you should muckthrough designing your backyard garden, choosing plants, rocks, lawn furniture and other suchthings may seem daunting at first, but it can be done.

On the other hand, hiring a professional todo things for you probably sounds a whole lot more appealing, doesn’t it? To better see what landscaping companies cando for you and that soon-to-be garden of yours, let us take a look at what kinds of servicesthese professionals can offer you.

For starters, these professional landscapecreating businesses offer their clients the chance to choose a garden design that theyfeel will fit your house’s design as well as your taste.

You may need to tell them first what you expectfrom your future garden and what ideas you might have.

Of course, if you are clueless as to whatmight look good for your house, you can have these professionals talk you through the possibilitiesand the costs that go with these ideas too.

Another thing that these landscaping companiescan give you is the hassle free choosing and finding of plants, rocks, fountains and otherdecorations you might want for your garden.

All of these will need to have your approvalof course since it is your lawn and your budget you guys are talking about here.

In short, a professional landscaper can helpgive you your dream garden with a little more money than what you might spend should youdo things yourself but with a lot more assurances that your garden will be absolutely stunningin the end.

Source: Youtube

Garden Rescue SOS Makeover

Hi this is Garden Ninja today we are up inBurnley and I'm doing a garden SOS what that means is that someone has instructed me tocome round and reorganise all of their planting give the garden a full makeover but withoutredesigning the hard landscaping.

SO today as I said we are up in Burnley and we havea traditional garden here with rectangular borders but if I show you round you will beable to see that a lot of the planting has been put together pick and mix so whilst someof these plants are actually beautiful they are not necessarily in the right order sowhat I'm going to do is remove a number of plants that shouldnt be here that have overgrownthemselves and move existing pockets of plants around into a more defined structure and thenadd a whole heap of new low maintenance herbaceous perennials so yeat after year it will keepcming back and its low maintenance.

This should give a really cohesive theme and thats oneof the key parts of any garden work not just design is that it's cohesive so when you lookat the garden it should make sense and it should follow some sort of order and pattern.

So I'll give you an update later on.

So this is the back garden I'll be working on as youcan see loads of shrubs here all different heights some need a real hard prune.

Alsoabout 4 or 5 dwarf conifers which are anything but dwarf so the first job will be to getthose out! it's a similar picture here in the front garden loads of different shrubsall competing for space in drastic need of a good prune and sort out.

A lot of the plantshere don't necessarily go here and thats really important in design, so when I redesign thisthe planting will be much more appropriate for the space and the conditions of this frontgarden.

Now I've just been digging up some dwarf conifers and they have grown ratherlarge so it's a bit of a battle but I think I'm winning managing to get them up.

It'sreally important when removing shrubs or dwarf conifers like this that you get out as muchof the root as possible you dont want to leave any in there.

It just gets stuck makes itdifficult to garden.

So it is now day 2 of the garden SOS up here in Burnley and yesterdaywas a really good day I got loads done so I have been working on my own on this projectand yesterday I managed to take out 5 conifers, the same amount of shrubs and so quite a bitof formative pruning on some shrubs that were staying so I'll give you a quick walk around.

So as you can see the beds have been cleared and made quite a significant difference already,so you maybe wondering how have you managed to do all that on your own? Well thats thepower of the garden ninja! So I'll update you later on.

So the plants have now justarrived at the Garden SOS and as you maybe able to see from my furrowed brow it's a scorchingday today it doesnt look it but its about 23 degrees I'm mad hot digging up shrubs andpruning its hard work but if you have a look at these beauties you'll see the kind of colourpalette I've gone for which is lots of dusky reds, pinks and some variegation and somelovely Sambucus here which will grow into really nice specimins.

So even though I'msweating my trousers off its definately going to be worth it! So more to follow.

Here'sthree of my plant favourites starting with Hosta 'Patriot' with it's white variegatedleaves, followed by Heuchera 'Marmalade' with it's bright orange leaves and lastly Astrantiamajor 'Snow storm' great for shady positions with its cottagey white flowers perfect forany garden.

I'm now on day 3 of the garden SOS so Ive done a lot of the hard graft suchas taking out the shrubs and anything thats going.

Today is pruning day! So I'm goingto be pruning formatively the shrubs that are staying it's really important when youprune that you take your time and that you do it properly, always angling away from abud just before the next branch or stem, some people kind of lop stuff off and it looksuntidy so with pruning take your time stand back, have another look and always a littlebit less is sometimes a little bit more! So I'm on the seconf to last day of Garden SOSand today is the exciting part, it's planting day! So I get to put all of these fantasticplants in and arrange them to make the garden look really good.

Unfortunately though theweather has made a turn for the worse! It is starting to rain.

So luckily garden ninjahas always his capsule wardrobe as you can see I've got long trousers on and water proofsready for the rain I've also got the help of my Grandads 70 year old bucket which heleft me a few years ago so it's got all my tools in there to get planting, so I'll keepyou updated and hopefully this rain wont mess up my hair to much! Placing plants out firstis a really good tip it means you can move them around before committing them to theground.

So this here is going to be the shade border because it has a number of conifershere it's never directly in the sun it's perfect for plants that like shade it's also quitedamp so the plants that I have chosen things like Hostas some Bugbane which really likeswet damp conditions what that plant will do is it will come up in summer with loads offoliage and then around August-September time you will get these huge spires, in this cultivarof white flowers so it gives you some end of season interest.

Hostas are fantastic plantsfor all sorts of different positions a little bit of shade really and keep them damp youget some amazing foliage and also get flowers.

You do need to be careful of slugs who lovethem, so make sure you're using some form of preventative measure to keep slugs at bay.

It's the final day of the gardening SOS so the suns out the rains stopped which is greatnews as it was really wet yesterday I've managed to finish the front garden which is all plantedand now I'm moving onto the back.

Finally, I'll be moving onto one of my favourite taskswhich is mulching! Everyone knows how much I love mulch so I will keep you posted andshow you the finished result.

So we have come to the end of the Garden SOS it's been dugover, shrubs removed, shrubs pruned back that are staying and a whole heap of new excitingyet low maintenance plants have been put in.

So things like Heucheras, Hostas, we havesome lovely Sambucus to add some structure and height and Armeria as well which is likea false thrift so lots of purples, pinks and dashes of white just to set the garden alightso it's been a fantastic week lots of hard work but I think you will agree that the endresult is really quite spectacular.

I;ve been garden ninja thanks for watching.

Source: Youtube

Japanese garden design guide

Hi and welcome back to Garden Ninja today I've brought myself down to London to the Kyoto gardens which is a great example of traditional Japanese garden What I'm going to do today is to give some tips how to create your own japanese garden at home.

come on let's get cracking so the first tip for japanese garden design is to follow the principle of nature trying to keep the design and the materials as natural as possible japanese garden design isn't about modernity it's about taking nature and reducing it or stylizing it to fit your garden space which is why japanese garden design is excellent for small spaces you can take symbols and trees and reduce them by using certain cultivars or species making it look natural on a much smaller scale The second tip is careful use of trees and shrubs not only can this keep the garden looking natural, but you can also use trees to screen off undesirable parts of the garden or even to lead the visitors around the garden using it at points of interest structure evergreen shrubs are also fantastic and giving year round colourr and the benefit of this is you can prune them to keep them small in size still giving that naturalist look.

The third tip would be to include a water feature in your garden now this could be moving water such as a natural waterfall or even a still pond water to show reflection and calm.

The one thing that it should be is natural to make sure it's in scale with the garden the last thing you want is a humongous waterfall in a tiny garden it just looks completely unrealisitic.

Rocks feature heavily in Japanese garden design whether the rocks are there to symbolize nature in the form of mountains or more spiritual side such as the passing between heaven and earth and the bridge between.

The advice would be to group rocks together maybe in threes fives to get a better structure and overall effect.

Lastly the tip would be if you're going to use statues and buildings make sure they're in keeping with the scale of the garden.

Thing like pergolas or a tea houses are fantastic if you've only got a small space you may need to pair them back slightly so they dont overwhelmed the overall look of the garden Again they should be good structural pieces but not take away from the natural feeling the garden.

So the Japanese design is trying to mimic nature that's why you're not going to find things like squared ponds ,fountains and big metallic structures or anything like that and the use of water always used in a natural setting.

This is really key to japanese garden design.

Mimicing nature bringing zen and tranquility to the garden space I've been Garden Ninja and if you like this clip and why not subscribe to my youtube channel to see more clips the garden design a garden hints and tips thanks for watching and I'll see you again soon.

Source: Youtube

Landscape Preference

Hello, my name is Dr.

Ann Marie VanDerZanden.

I am a professor of horticulture at Iowa StateUniversity.

and I'd like to welcome you to the Online Garden Design Course.

The module I will be presenting is: LandscapePreference: understanding our connections to plants and nature.

In this presentation I will discuss what weknow about the connections between plants and people to help provide an overarchingcontext for landscape design.

I will also discuss why we as humans prefersome landscape settings over other settings.

This is broadly termed landscape preference.

The concept of landscape preference is groundedin to theories: Behavioral Theory and Humanistic Theory I like to include a brief overview of thesetwo theories because for me when I first started studying landscape preference, once i understoodmore about basic human motivation, I started to understand more about why some landscapesare so wonderful to be in, while others made me feel uncomfortable.

To get started, I first want to talk aboutthe people-plant connection.

There is a large body of research that hasexplored the impact that plants have on our daily lives and overall well-being.

Two areas of research I would like to mention are related to employees and to hospital patients.

In the first study research showed that workers who could see trees and flowers outside from their work station reported their jobs to be less stressful and more satisfying.

And they also had fewer days away from work for medical ailments.

In the studies of hospital patients data showed that those who hadviews of the outside where they could see plants, healed faster, had shorter hospital stays, and required less pain medication.

In these two images I am sharing two of myfavorite, or preferred landscapes.

Both of these places were very specialto me as a child, and even looking at them now, they conjure up wonderful memories.

The deep personal connections we have to landscapes-either natural or those that are built- shouldn’t be underestimated.

This landscape showcases just how personallandscape preference can be.

A student shared this picture with me aftertaking my design courses.

Her point was that this person preferred havinga lot of garden ornamentation in their landscape Next, I will talk about the two differenttheories that support the broad concept of landscape preference.

The first theory I will discuss is BehavioralAssessment.

This concept is rooted in the biological needwe as humans have to survive when we are outside.

In order for our ancestors to survive theoutside spaces they were in, the space itself needed to provide the appropriate habitat.

This is the focus of Habitat Theory.

While in these outdoor spaces we also needto be safe and protected from danger such as wild animals.

And safety is the basis for the Prospect-RefugeTheory.

I’ll come back to the Humanistic Theoryshortly.

The concept of Habitat Theory is pretty straightforward.

As humans we prefer habitats or outdoor spaces that support our survival.

Outdoor spaces that support our survival oftenoffer us the ability to moderate temperature and the amount of exposure (such as sunlight, rain, or wind,) that we experience.

These spaces also provide food and often water.

And they also provide some security and shelter.

The shelter piece is associated with moderatingthe temperature and exposure to elements.

The landscape in this image is a great exampleof an outdoor space that supports the Habitat Theory.

You can see the three sided structure whichmoderates temperature, exposure and provides shelter and security.

There is also a water feature present, Whatisn’t evident is whether or not the space provides food as well.

In modern society that may not be as important.

However an important feature in today’slandscapes is the use of outdoor furniture or other creature comforts that make the landscape feel morelike our homes.

The image on the left has two outdoor livingspaces a deck and patio, and both of them are too exposed to be comfortable.

As a result they do not support the habitattheory very well.

The outdoor living space in the image on theright, better supports the habitat theory.

The space is protected on at least two sides,and the overhead canopy of the trees also creates a sense of enclosure.

Prospect-Refuge Theory is the second partof Behavioral Assessment.

In simple terms we like to be in landscapeswhere we can see (prospect) with out being seen (refuge).

This is one reason the front porch is suchan important part of the landscape.

As a homeowner, I can sit on my porch andwatch the goings on of the neighborhood, but due to some strategically planted shrubs,I’m tucked away a little so everyone driving up and down the street doesn’t fully seeme.

The image on this slide illustrates an exposeddeck with no ‘refuge’, as well as a deck with a small lattice structure added whichdoes provide some protection and as a result ‘refuge’ in the back yard.

Now that I’ve talked about BehavioralAssessment concept as it relates to landscape preference, the next area I want to talk aboutit the Humanistic Assessment.

Humanistic assessment deals with what we ‘learn’about a landscape.

As human we always try to make sense of oursurroundings.

At a most basic level it helps us survivebeing outside.

On a more developed level it helps us enjoyand appreciate being in a space.

It helps us understand how we feel in thespace, and ultimately if we want to stay in that space.

Some specific examples of what we processmentally whenwe enter into an outdoor living space are: Does it seem familiar? Are there distinct patterns? and is it engaging- mentally, physically, or emotionally? Once we decide to stay in a outdoor livingspace, our mind then starts processing four 4 main factors.

Each of these factors significantly influencesour preference for a landscape and include: Coherence, Complexity,Legibility, Mystery.

Coherence is the underlying feel that a landscapeconveys.

A landscape with coherence has a sense oforder to it.

And often this sense of order comes from repetitionof individual elements in the landscape.

Coherent landscape ‘fits together’.

In this image the landscape exhibits a lotof coherence because of the repetition of curves plant materials such as shrubs and ground covers and the green colors Complexity is the second preference factor and gets atour need for landscapes to be mentally engaging.

Complexity provides this by providing a varietyof elements for us to look at.

However, there needs to be a comfortable balancebetween visual chaos and boredom.

The planting bed in this image has a mix ofbright colors (yellow and red) and more subdued colors (green and purple).

This combination provides a good amount of visual interest.

on of curves, plant materials (shrubs andgroundcovers) and the green color.

Legibility is the third factor that influenceslandscape preference.

The concept of legibility is important becauseit is the factor that enables us to understand or ‘read’ a landscape.

For example, when we walk into an outdoorspace one of the first questions that enters our mind is “Will I get lost if I ventureinto the space?” Can I find my way back to the starting place? Are there clues that will help with my way-finding? This image shows pathways, arbors overthe paths, and focal points that all help guide a person through the landscape.

Each of these can be considered visual cuesthat help a person know how to move through the space.

These two images further illustrate legibilityin the landscape.

The landscapes in both images have an obviousfocal point: the gazebo at the end of the lawn area in the image on the left; and thewhite arbor and white lawn chairs in the image on the right.

Both landscapes also offer a clear way toget to the focal point.

In both cases the way to the focal point isclear both visually because of a mostly unobstructed view, and also physically because there isa clear path to walk in order to reach the focal point.

Mystery is the fourth element that influencesour landscape preferences.

And research shows that mystery is the mostimportant of the four factors.

This is because as humans we are curious bynature.

We want to be in outdoor spaces that giveus a sense that there is more to learn or experience in the landscape than just whatwe see when we are standing in one location.

The sidewalk in this image is a great exampleof mystery.

The vantage point that the photo was takenfrom, shows a clear way to move through the landscape, suggesting it is a legible space,but there is also a corner at the end of the far end of the sidewalk that shows that the sidewalkcontinues for quite some distance and that there is more to be experienced in the landscapethan just what can be seen.

The image on the left gets at the age oldquestion- What’s around the corner? There is a clear way to explore that, butit is unclear where the path ends which provides a sense of mystery.

The image on the right makes a person wonder:What is behind the gate? Because you can see through the iron gateit is clear that there is something of interest on the other side.

But you won’t know exactly what is in thereuntil you open the gate and begin to explore that part of the landscape.

This brings me to the conclusion of this presentationon landscape preference and understanding the connections we have to plants and nature.

In summary, this presentation has highlightedthat there is substantial evidence, both anecdotal and research based, that plants and naturaland built landscapes play an important role in our lives.

Further, what we know about landscape preferenceshows that preference is both in our genes and learned.

Our individual preferences are present everytime we experience an outdoor space.

And finally, the four key landscape characteristics:coherence, complexity, legibility and mystery, that I highlighted are universal to the overallconcept of landscape preference.

I hope that you've enjoyed this presentationon landscape preference as part of the Iowa State University Department of HorticultureOnline Garden Design Course.

Source: Youtube

Stylish No Lawn Drought Design: Pam Penick

In 2008, Pam Penick stepped up to the challenge when she and husband David moved to a neighborhood that's literally home with the armadillos and deer.

To put her stamp on this new garden, she tackled shade, floodwater control, and yards of grass.

Really it was just a process of from the time we moved in until now just been kind of nipping out pieces of the lawn around the house just kinda working my way around to wherever was most interesting at the time.

We had inherited the pool and the pool patios were circles.

Building on the circular theme one of her first projects was to replace grass with an 8-foot stock tank pond.

At first it was just decomposed granite around it, but I emphasized the circle with the strips of stone, the sawn strips I had.

There was a pallet leftover at a stone yard and I bought the whole palette and laid those in a sunburst pattern.

So that was like the first major circular edition, and then I did plant in a formal shape those boxwood balls at each entry way into that garden space.

Bamboo muley and Colorguard yuccas hug the part-sun border against the upper storey patio.

On the opposite shadier side Pam spanned culver pipes and planted up with squid agaves.

One side is much lower than the other.

The culver pipes will elevate that to be sort of the same height as the color guards and because they've got those ridges, those spiral ridges, they kind of echo the stripes in the colorguard.

From the start, Pam had her eye on the existing limestone beds across the back.

Gradually, she replaced struggling plants for water thrifty layers strengthened with foliar contrasts.

She added graceful uplifting Alphonscar bamboo to a resident Texas persimmon and crepe myrtle to complement the tall lines of the house.

At first Pam moved plants from her old garden like her beloved Wales tongue agave, Moby.

As she got acquainted with her new garden, Pam discarded some of the past in favor of better fits.

Then I also paid attention to what you looked at in each direction, which ever way you looked I wanted there to be a focal point.

And then most recently, the other circular project I added were the stucco walls.

We already had the terraces from the limestone beds, but there was nothing behind the pool except this feeling of space like your chair might slip off the edge of those little patios if you weren't careful and so the stucco walls were to give us some structure and stability and to echo the feeling of these limestone walls but with a more contemporary kind of colorful look.

She built her first stand-alone wall with cinder blocks to frame a patio against a downhill path.

Always looking for ideas to display intricate succulents, the multi-storey design makes the perfect showcase.

And because you can see on both sides I experimented with ways to have the parts that stick out – they stick on both sides.

Everyone asks how do you keep the soil in the pockets and the way I did it was I jammed a nail down in there – like diagonally into the holes just to kind of – like a large nail – to support a chicken wire basket that's then filled with landscape fabric.

So there's a chicken wire basket with landscape fabric to keep the soil in and then there's just a little pocket of well-drained soil, and then the succulents are planted right in that.

To color up this patio that Pam views from her office, she picked bright shades that accent rather than clash.

I like blue, and blue to me is cooling.

I always had a bottle tree and this is a newer version of a bottle tree.

The bottle tree traditionally has blue bottles and so that was probably the starting point and I just bought some more blue pots, but I have consciously echoed the Blues partly because we have a blue pool, and when you have the blue pool you're gonna have to run with the blue pool.

The pool determines a lot more than I really realized at first.

In the terrace backyard different pathway treatments keep things moving right along.

Alongside the cinderblock patio, Pam replaced grass with crushed limestone gravel and treated pine curves.

She matched the technique on the other side.

The gravel and wooden curbs prevent rainfall wipeouts and downpours.

Flagstones promote destination through the shady back.

Where the woodsy walk meets the pond and concrete pool surround, Pam installed a more formal flagstone design.

She didn't need to haul in the limestone slabs, nature offered them for free.

Since the back abuts a greenbelt, former owners wired cedar post to the chain-link fence.

Although it keeps out deer, tunneling armadillos are a challenge.

On both sides Pam installed trellis stall fences for open-faced privacy.

She modified the new gates to be more invitational.

I just got a little jigsaw and cut out the window, the peekaboo window is what I like to call it.

And then I had some old cattle panel leftover.

I put that in the window just as a grid.

In front, her first project was to create privacy screening on the central driveway berm.

She ripped out ground cover Jasmines and Nandinas under the oak trees for intriguing depth with deer resistant plants.

Then she modified the main section's berm.

The berm was slippery with St.

Augustine, you couldn't walk around the front of the house without tripping over old stumps of shrubs that were long gone.

A few years ago I had a guy come in with a bobcat and dig out a pathway along the driveway and along the front of the house and that kind of gave the house some breathing room, it gave us a pass so that we could walk through the front and to the back yard.

At the sunny curb, it gave her level planting ground for pollinator and hummingbird plants.

Since deer are on the street, Pam's learned what they might not munch.

A decomposed granite path allows passage and observation between the sunlit curb and the shady Berkeley sedge lawn that replaced St.


And my daughter and I planted them, I think it was about how many? 700 plants, 700 plugs.

It was a lot of plugs and I made holes with a broom handle, so I was just standing there with a broom handle you know doing this to make the hole and then she was dropping the plugs in.

And it took about two years for it to fill in as it is now so at first it was a little I call it like a hair plug look for it to really fill in, but now it has filled in great.

She and neighbor Donna collaborated on a garden where the properties unite.

Pam added a functional path that also shows off the natural rock formation.

Later, Pam installed a neighborly cedar lattice stall fence staying dark to recede into the background.

I wanted to kind of create a more enclosed garden feel where I wouldn't be looking straight into their driveway but I wasn't also blocking it all off.

It's not really for privacy is just to make you feel like you're in a room.

For wall hangings in her new room she cut legs off trellises, stained them to match the fence and backed with acrylic mirrors.

On the other side of the driveway she created a gentle screen in a narrow strip once home to grass.

It's widened over time as the neighbors wanted less to mow.

They saw that I was planting like crazy so they asked me if I could just kind of continue those beds.

At the front door she updated the architecture with a gable porch.

Since grass scorched in the house-side nook, she replaced it for a sun hearty succulent gallery.

It just adds a little bit of a modern flair to the front.

I used tractor rims which I got off craigslist and then I had a friend who I think he had found the big steel pipe on his dad's ranch and he offered it to me for sale and I snap that right up.

I like to put the sculptural plants, agaves and things like that in pots anyway because it protects them, it protects you from them.

The first heavy rain sent her back to the drawing board.

We took out the existing sidewalk that dipped down and put in the concrete strips and the idea was that water could flow between the concrete strips but once I took out the grass the ground was leveled in a strange way and it didn't end up draining so well.

Her solution? An underground sump pump and a water collecting bin.

When it fills up with enough water it takes it through a pipe through the concrete pavers into the dry stream and carries it through the dry stream around the corner of the house.

And then it comes through the backyard and slowly with baffles and stone I try to slow down as it comes through the garden.

To diminish downpours, off the main berm she added a limestone retaining wall.

In the corner stone raised bed native wooly stemodius spills over, even in drought.

Author of two best-selling books and and award-winning blog, Pam champions how to turn yards into creative adventures.

To me it's the invitation.

It's part of what gets you out of the door.

It's connecting your house to your garden.

Source: Youtube

Drawing the Design

Hello, my name is Katrina Lansman.

I am a horticulturist and landscape designer.

Welcome to the lecture portion of the OnlineGarden Design Course.

The topic I will be presenting is: Drawingthe design.

In this presentation I will discuss the overviewof the design process and products, the basics of drawing a design, and the different diagramsand drawings such as functional diagrams, the preliminary design, and the master plan.

In the design process beginning with siteanalysis and the client program, next come the functional diagrams, preliminary design and master plan.

The circled process is the focus of this presentation.

So, the basics of drawing the design are:the design is to be drawn in plan view, or birds eye view.

Everything in the plan should be drawn tothe chosen scale.

And as you have learned in the landscape graphicsmodule, circles or plant symbols represent the different plants.

First you need to draw the basemap.

The basemap includes the property line whichis drawn using a dashed line, the outline of the house, driveway, other existing featuresthat you will be keeping in the design, as well as existing plants.

Existing plants have a dot in the center ofthe plant symbol and the proposed plants have a crosshair.

The basemap should also include the borderand title block.

The example above also shows an elevationdrawing but that can be added at the end or the beginning of drawing the design.

Here again is the order in which the diagramsand drawings are done.

Functional diagrams, which includes two steps:bubble diagrams and form composition diagrams followed by a preliminary design, followedby a master plan.

You may want to jump right into a preliminarydesign, but you will benefit from utilizing the functional diagrams first.

So, what are these functional diagrams? What do they do? They are a tool to help you organize the spacein the landscape.

This step is where you utilize the site analysisyou already completed, the clients wants and needs, and the outdoor room concept.

This is when you get to be creative with theway that the landscape is laid out.

The first functional diagram as mentionedbefore is a bubble diagram.

Bubble diagrams are not exact, they only organizethe spaces.

It works best to lay a sheet of tracing paperover your basemap and draw the bubbles on the tracing paper.

You can have many drafts of a bubble diagrambefore you get the organization you think is best.

On the previous slide you may have seen differentarrows and symbols such as the ones in this image, those symbols are used to representand keep track of circulation paths and views while you are organizing the space.

Form compositions are the second step in creatingfunctional diagrams.

This diagram is a little more detailed andshows not only how the space is organized, but how it will be carried out.

Again, this drawing is done on tracing paperover the basemap.

Lines can be drawn and extended out from thecorners of the house and windows to create lines of influence.

The lines can be straight, or angled, or both.

This type of pattern can help you see shapesin the open spaces that you never noticed before.

Again, this diagram shows more details intohow the design will be carried out considering the site elements, design framework, and thedesign theme.

This drawing is an example of drawing thelines of influence.

Once these lines are drawn and extended out,it can be seen where the views and focal points of the landscape will be.

Here is the form composition created fromthe bubble diagram we saw earlier on slide number eight.

The patio and deck now have a more definedshape and even a texture.

The designer has also told us that the privacyscreen indicated on the bubble diagram will be created using a fence and tall shrubs asseen in the form composition.

Just like bubble diagrams, you can createmultiple form compositions.

Here is an example of a curvilinear, rectilinear,and irregular shaped form composition all created from the same bubble diagram.

Each space is organized the same, but thedetails are carried out differently.

Are you drawn to a certain style? Or, maybe your client expressed to you thatthey like a certain style.

Here is another example of two different formcompositions using the same organization and lay out from the bubble diagram.

You want to make sure that your form compositionshave strong lines and defined spaces.

Next is the preliminary design.

Once you have chosen the final bubble diagramand created the final form composition, the preliminary design is when you refine everythingone step further.

Individual plants and plant symbols are added,paths have a clear shape and texture, and color can even be added for the preliminarydesign meeting with the client.

There are three steps of refinement: aestheticrefinement, functional refinement, and spatial refinement.

Aesthetic refinement includes the applicationof landscape design principles such as emphasis and unity.

As well as creating strong bed lines and definitionof each space creating different garden rooms.

Functional refinement includes solutions tothe problems identified on the client program, circulation patterns, the amount of landscapemaintenance, as well as the including landscape preference elements.

Spatial refinement includes considering thethree dimensional attributes such as proportions of spaces.

How does each space feel next to the other? Also, think about including walls ceilings,and floors to create the feeling of different garden rooms.

Plant materials can then be used to reinforcethese spaces.

Here is the preliminary design of the bubblediagram seen earlier on slide 8 and the form composition seen earlier on slide 12.

In showing this preliminary design to a client,they can easily see all the elements incorporated in the design as well as the hardscape detailsand individual plants.

Finally, the master plan.

After the preliminary design meeting, revisionsare made from what you and your client talked about and you can then create the master plan.

The master plan is very graphically detailedand specific, it includes a plant key, a design concept, and the construction details if thereare any.

This is not the same design as shown beforebut this is a great example of a master plan and how it should look with all of the componentssuch as the plant labels, design concept, and plant key.

Reviewing again the order of the design processusing these diagrams and drawings, you have the bubble diagrams, form composition diagrams,the preliminary design, and the master plan.

I also wanted to provide more examples ofeach of these diagrams.

So, here are two bubble diagrams of the sameproperty, where the spaces are organized differently.

Those bubble diagrams were then drawn intotwo different form compositions.

The one on the left is rectilinear and theone on the right is curvilinear.

And finally, here is the preliminary designwhich was then made into the master plan.

This plan does not show the plant key andplant labels that a master plan should have but it is the continuation of the previousbubble diagrams and form compositions.

As you can see, transitioning from the formcomposition to the preliminary and master plan is when the design really comes to life.

It is a clear example of how the plants helpto reinforce the space.

The last portion of this presentation is toshow that functional diagrams can also be drawn in elevation view.

This is less common, but it helps a designerto see scale and imagine what it would be like to stand in the space.

You would not usually show the plan view functionaldiagrams to the client, but if you were sketching up something during your initial meeting,they would most likely enjoy seeing a plan of how you would organize the space.

Another great way to get started on a designor inspired by drawing functional diagrams in elevation view, is by printing out a photoof the house or area, laying trace paper over the top of it, and sketching the materialsin.

This brings me to the conclusion of this presentationon drawing the design.

In summary, this presentation has highlightedthe utilization of functional diagrams, the preliminary design, and the final master plan.

Functional diagrams include two parts: bubblediagrams, and form compositions.

The preliminary design requires three typesof refinement.

And the master plan is the most detailed documentand includes all the information that the client needs.

Lastly, functional diagrams can also be drawnin elevation view.

I hope you have enjoyed this presentationon drawing the design as part of the Iowa State University Department of HorticultureOnline Garden Design Course.

Source: Youtube

Corporate film Erik van Gelder – Devoted to Garden Design

By the time I was twelve, I knew I wanted to design gardens.

I always drew my father’s sketches as presentable plans.

It was truly a wish from my earliest years.

Hello! Good morning! I’m Erik van Gelder.

This is a very special project in Dordrecht, in the old centre of the city.

You really do see the combination between the modern elements and the old environment.

It creates a very special atmosphere.

You have the ultimate holiday feeling in your own garden.

It begins with a concept design.

A concept design is a ground map drawn to scale and brought to life with a conceptual 3D rendering.

We try to tell a story in every phase.

This way, the process of developing your garden becomes an experience in itself.

So, actually, the question from the neighbour is: can we take away a section from the walkway, where the holm oak comes through on the lower ground level? Let me take a look; if you do this … People buy a house because they like its architecture.

Or have a house built because they like the style, but very often, they don’t actually see their houses.

So I always recommend creating a place a little further away at the back of your garden, so you can enjoy the view of your house.

We have developed a number of fire tables, which are often tailor-made elements.

For example, we have made a fire table with different materials.

Where we combined it with the pebbles to create a really cool element.

Another feature of my gardens: lighting.

It’s becoming more and more important, especially for creating that special feeling in the garden.

It’s something we truly focus on.

And then we have the final garden design.

Which contains an engineering draft, the drawing on which all the materials are listed.

All the plants are included, the lighting plan and every other detail.

And from this we can realize the ultimate design for you.

Source: Youtube

Starting the Landscape Design Process

Hello, my name is Dr.

Ann Marie VanDerZanden.

I am a professor of horticulture at Iowa StateUniversity.

Welcome to the Online Garden Design Course.

The title of the module I will be presentingis: Starting the Landscape Design Process.

This presentation will focus on how to get starteddesigning a landscape.

To do this I will provide an overview of thedesign process.

More information about how to implement themultiple phases of the design process will be discussed in more detail in other modulesof this online design course.

I will also talk about the broad concept ofchoosing a design style.

And finally, I will talk about the three differentuse areas found in most residential landscapes and the ways these spaces are used and thecharacteristics that they have.

When I first start talking about the landscapedesign process I often use this quote from a BBC (the British Broadcasting Company) radioprogram I heard a number of years ago.

The quote “Planting a garden is like hittingsomething with a stick: it can be music, or it can be noise” resonates with me.

Landscape design is a process.

And sometimes the end product is successful-hence the reference to music.

Other times it can be less successful in whichcase it is more like noise.

As a designer I think it is important to realizesometimes you will make noise, but other times you will make beautiful music.

I’ve included this flow chart graphic to provide context for the overall design process andproducts.

What I will be discussing in this presentationinfluences the design, but not specific items that necessarily result from the design process.

The information identified during the sitedocumentation process and the program requirements are ultimately combined to create functional diagrams,which are then followed by a preliminary design and then finally a master plan.

This part of the design process will be discussedin detail in a separate module as I mentioned earlier.

I’ve included this graphic to illustratethat the overall design process is an iterative one that includes multiple points to reflectand reevaluate on decisions that were made.

First, you accept the situation and the challengesand opportunities created by the site to be designed.

Next, you analyze what you have to work withon the site and begin making some initial decisions.

Next, you begin defining the scope of the workand determining what is realistic.

This is followed by generating different design ideas.

From this list of ideas some are selectedand then implemented into the actual landscape installation.

And finally, once the landscape has been installedit needs to be evaluated to see how it is doing.

The graphic shows that at each step the designershould reflect on decisions and make appropriate changes where necessary.

Now let’s focus on choosing a design style.

Choosing a design style creates the basisfor many of the future design decisions that will be made.

Most often in residential landscapes, thestyle of the house significantly influences the design style.

This modern style house lends itself to alandscape that has strong geometric shapes.

It might also include a more minimalist plantingstyle which works well with mid-century modern architecture.

The symmetrical architecture of a colonialstyle home can easily be translated into a symmetrical or more formal landscape design.

This landscape shows strong symmetrical balancewith the walkway and front door being the central axis of the design.

You can see by dividing the landscapein half along the central axis, the plantings on the left side are mirrored on the rightside.

Even the sheared topiaries in containers nextto the house and the sheared hedges reinforce the symmetry.

Single-story ranch style homes are ubiquitousthroughout the American landscape.

And although the architecture of a ranch stylehome tends to be somewhat boxy, the single story height allows for a full range of differentdesign styles.

Some designers will create strong visual contrastby designing large foundation planting beds with broad sweeping curves.

In other instances, they will accentuate theboxy style of architecture by using straight bedlines.

In some respects a ranch style home lendsitself to the greatest opportunity for different design styles.

The next overarching concept to consideris determining how the different areas within a landscape will be used.

Most residential landscapes have 3 main areas:the public area, the living or private area, and the service area.

Each of these three areas have different functionswithin the landscape, and as such each also has its own unique set of characteristics.

To help people visualize this concept, I oftenliken use areas to the rooms within a home.

For example the public area is like a formalliving room.

The living or private area is like a familyroom.

And the service area is like a utility orlaundry room.

The public area in the front yard of mostproperties It is the space between the front of the houseand the street.

In this space, trees should be planted toframe the house.

An easy way to do this is to plant trees ata 45 degree angle from the corner of the house.

The image shows shade trees on the right sideof the house planted at roughly a 45 degree angle.

Shrubs with a variety of heights and shapesshould be planted in the front, particularly those that are planted as foundation plantingsadjacent to the house.

This helps soften the transition from theridged and linear shape of the house to the more natural shapes found in the landscape.

The living area or private area is most oftenthe backyard.

This is a private space used by the clientand not a space others will necessarily see.

The rules, if you will, in this space area little more relaxed, and the elements included in the space should be selected to meet theneeds of the client and how they will use use the space.

Plantings in this area should be soul-satisfyingand aesthetic.

Include plants here that really help increasethe landscape preference a person will feel in the space.

There should be some type of enclosure suchas fence, plants, or a combination of both to help create the walls of an outdoor roomand provide privacy from the neighbors.

The materials used on the ground surface needto be selected to accommodate how the space will be used.

For example, is there a need for a large turfarea for kids to play? Or does there need to be a patio space largeenough to entertain guests? And finally this is where a homeowner canshowcase their collection of garden gnomes or other types of garden embellishments.

I liken these to the home accessories thatreally customize an outdoor living space.

Please take a few minutes and look closelyat the image on this slide and see how many examples from these four categories you canidentify in this backyard.

I’ve included this image as another exampleof a living area in a landscape.

I’ve highlighted the enclosures with bluearrows.

These are a gazebo and a lattice fence.

The home accessories are highlighted withthe yellow arrows and include an outdoor dining set and a metal sculpture.

You can see the plantings are an interestingmix of color, textures, and shapes.

And finally there are two different groundsurfaces, each of which serves a different need.

A solid stone patio for the dining set, andgravel for the walkway.

These are identified with the purple arrows.

The final use area in a landscape is the servicearea.

The key features of a service area includethat it is screened from view, but that it is still accessible.

No matter how lovely your compost area mightbe, it still shouldn’t be used as a focal point of a back yard.

The yellow arrow shows how a compost bin canbe discreetly tucked at the edge of this backyard.

It is still functional, but not out in plainview for people who might be sitting on the patio looking in to the backyard.

This brings me to the conclusion of this presentationon starting the landscape design process.

In summary, this presentation highlightedthe overall design process including the different products that are created throughout the designprocess and how it is an iterative process.

I also described how to chose a design stylefor a landscape and the influence a home’s architecture has on that.

And finally, I outlined the three use areaswithin a landscape, the function they perform, and the characteristics of each area.

I hope you have enjoyed this presentationon starting the design process as part of the Iowa State University Department of HorticultureOnline Garden Design Course.

Source: Youtube

Applying the Landscape Design Principles

Hello, my name is Dr.

Ann Marie VanDerZanden.

I am a professor of horticulture at Iowa StateUniversity.

Welcome to the Online Garden Design Course.

The module I will be presenting is titled:Applying Landscape Design Principles.

In this presentation I will discuss the sixcommon landscape design principles.

These principles are: 1.

Simplicity, 2.

Order or Design Framework, 3.

Repetition, 4.

Balance, 5.

Scale and Proportion, 6.


I like to organize the design principles intotwo different categories based loosely on how they influence the landscape.

The first group are those principles thatinfluence how the landscape looks.

This group includes simplicity, balance, proportionand scale, and emphais.

The second group influence how the landscapeis organized.

This group includes order or design framework,and repetition.

Although I’ve grouped these in two categories, the reality is that there is a lot of overlap between the two of them and they really do impact each other.

The first principle I will discuss is Simplicity.

I think this is one of the easiest principlesto identify in a landscape.

Simplicity can be divided into two categories: physical simplicity and visual simplicity.

Physical simplicity is evident when the shapeswithin the garden are simple.

For example the top image on the slide hasa simple circle lawn and square stepping stones.

The bottom image also has a simple and gentlycurving bedline.

Visual simplicity relates to how the landscapelooks, and it is often reinforced by physical simplicity.

In visual simplicity plants are grouped ormassed rather than lined up as individual entities.

You can see examples of plant masses in thebottom image on the slide.

Further examples of visual simplicity cancome from uniform paving materials, simple and natural plant forms, and repetition ofplants and colors.

I think the captions speak for themselvesin this slide The second principle is order or design framework.

When this principle is implemented well, itgives the landscape an overall framework where individual elements such as a patio, plantingbeds, water feature, etc, can all be added.

The principle helps the overall landscapemake sense.

Order or design framework is often linkedto the overarching theme that a landscape has such as formal, informal or a hybrid structuredinformality look and feel.

I’ll talk more about these in just a moment.

This principle also helps define rooms withina landscape, such as a back yard entertaining area.

It also helps make a physical link betweenthe landscape and the house.

The blue arrows on this slide’s image showhow the designer aligned the corner of the patio space with the corner of the house creatinga connection between the two elements.

The three images here represent three differentframeworks: formal, informal and structured informal which is a blend of the two.

A formal design often includes symmetricalbalance where a landscape can be divided in half along a central axis and each side ofthe landscape is a mirror image.

They are also mostly linear in layout Informal designs tend to have asymmetricalbalance.

In this case if the landscape were dividedin half there wouldn’t be a mirror image on either side of the axis, but there wouldbe similar amount of visual weight on either side of the axis I will talk more about this in the sectionon Balance in just a few slides.

Structured formal is a combination of both frameworks and tends to take on many different looks.

To illustrate those different looks, this image has been included.

It shows a design that has structured informality.

There are some linear elements but not mirrorsymmetry.

This is probably my favorite design framework to create.

The principle of repetition can be very obviousor or in other cases it can be more subtle.

Repetition gives a landscape continuity byhaving various elements repeated multiple times throughout the design.

Examples of these elements include plants,colors, textures, and hardscape material.

The image on this slide has a number of examplesof repetition based on a pyramidal shape.

Examples include the pyramidal shape of theevergreen shrubs in the back-ground, the shape of the hydrangea flowers in the mid-ground;the shape of the ornamental grass flowers in the foreground and the shape of the obeliskstructure in the middle of the image.

Repetition is also seen through the limitedcolor scheme of just green and white.

Repetition doesn’t have to be monotonous.

The illustration on the left shows a centralaxis with small rectangles repeated at set distances along the length of it.

This is pretty monotonous.

The image on the right shows repetition withjust a little bit of variation.

In this case the alternating pattern of rectanglesand half circles are repeated rather than just the rectangles.

This type of repetition gives a little morevisual interest.

Balance is the fourth principle.

I’ve already referred to it when I discussedorder or design framework.

Symmetrical balance is characterized by acentral axis along which a landscape can be divided visually.

The sides on either side of the axis are amirror image of each other.

And although symmetrical balance is oftenassociated with landscapes that have a lot of linear or straight elements, it can beapplied to any landscape.

The two black lines on this image representtwo different central axis in this design.

Take a few minutes and look at how the designmirrors itself from one side to the other.

The other type of balance found in landscapesis asymmetrical.

In this case there is no obvious central axis.

Asymmetrical designs also tend to be moreinformal in their overall feel, and are often characterized by curvalinear planting beds.

These line drawings illustrate a front entryplanting with a symmetrical layout, the top image, and an asymmetrical layout in the bottomimage.

Although the plantings are not the same oneach side of the front door there is still a similar visual balance on either side of the central axis created by that front door.

Scale and proportion is the fifth design principle.

This principle takes into account the sizerelationships between the many different landscape features.

Common relationships to consider inlcude plantsto buildings, plants to other plants, and plants to people.

When designing a landscape it is importantto consider the mature size of the plants.

Although the proportion may be a little off-kilterthe first few years, once the plants reach a mature size the relationships should beappropriate.

This example of the landscape at Versaillesshows how important it is to consider the overall size and dimensions of the landscape.

Although the evergreen shrubs themselves aren’tparticularly large in the image on the left, the overall landscape area they are plantedin is, so the scale works with the massive size of the palace.

The image on the right is one of manywater features at Versailles and it illustrates the large scale of it relative to the visitors.

Clearly a small back yard pond wouldn’twork in this landscape context.

The final design principle is emphasis.

Emphasis is created by carefully situatedfocal points.

It is appropriate to include multiple focalpoints in a single landscape, since the entire landscape is usually not viewed from justone vantage point.

It’s important to situate them in differentlocations based on where the landscape is viewed from the most.

All of the images on this slide provide examplesof different focal points that provide emphasis.

This brings me to the conclusion of this presentationon applying landscape design principles.

In summary, this presentation has describedeach of the six landscape design principles including: Simplicity, Order or Design Framework,Repetition, Balance, Scale and Proportion, and Emphasis.

I’ve described a number of ways each principlecan be seen in a design, and how all of the principles work to provide a framework foreffective design.

I hope you have enjoyed this presentation on applying the lanscape design principles as part of the Iowa State University Department of HorticultureOnline Garden Design Course.

Source: Youtube

Daniel Urban Kiley Lecture: Georges Descombes, “Designing a River Garden

Good evening, everyone.

I see many facesfrom outside, so I want to thank you for coming inspite of the heavy rains, which we need.

Yet nevertheless, it'snot easy to get here.

My name is Anita Berrizbeitia.

Welcome again.

I will introduceour speaker tonight.

It is often said that his work,the work of the Swiss landscape architect GeorgesDescombes, is memory.

It's about memory,memory of place.

He works through a combinationof historical research, a collaborative practicewith biologists, restoration ecologists, artists, architects,and his own extensive field work.

And through thisprocess, he has built a series of exquisiteprojects that never fail to surprise and,more importantly, to engage our imagination.

For more than adecade, he has been working on the restoration ofthe banks of the River Aire and of the flood plain ofthis river outside of Geneva.

In some ways, themandate for this project is typical of today– toremove the concrete walls that constrain the flow of waterand to restore its banks to a naturalized condition, withall the accompanying benefits that this bringswith it, including flood control, habitatrestoration, and the recovery of the land's rural identity.

But this simple chargein Descbombes's mind is not so straightforward.

In characteristic ways, he takesthe more challenging approach of questioning and reconsideringthe very purpose of the project brief, the dismantlingof the walls.

To offer a more nuancedand complex notion of history, of memory, ofpresence, and of the territory where so muchunfolds, he decides radically to keep the wallsand to redefine the project boundary sites.

I quote here from thedescription of the project.

"A bundle of lines movesfluidly and crosses a straight, clear,horizontal line.

The River Aire freelyrambles across the plain, but the liberationof this Geneva river has not led to theeffacement of its canal.

Between the river andthe fine rectilinear work which retain its whims, ahappy co-habitation was found.

" In other words,this is not simply a work of reconstruction, but away of looking and working that admits manyhistories, techniques, and textures of place.

Given the events ofthis past week here, it is impossible to ignorethe political underpinning of this way of working, forthe restoration of this river is a project not of editingout, but of inclusion.

Of his way ofdrawing– copiously, to use his ownwords– Georges has said that he most appreciatesthat it is quiet work, and I take this tomean thinking time.

I am most fascinatedby the fact that he transfers the quiet to us,the visitor, by inducing reflection.

His work requires immersivethinking, slow looking, deceleration.

Whether through the scalerdistortions of a tunnel footbridge Lancy,the layered mesh screens that refocus our eyes inthe pavilion in the Swiss way, or the recompositionof the fragments that constitute theMemorial at Bijlmer, his work demands and enablesthe free association of ideas and of history as an unfolding,multilayered process.

It would not be a stretchto say that he demands of us to see in the sameway that he draws– quietly, thoughtfully, conscientiously.

And then, when we aredoing with our quiet, we find ourselves jolted outof our habitual ways of seeing.

For the revitalizationof the River Aire, the project that he will betalking about tonight, Georges and his team have been awardedthe prestigious Swiss Landscape Award, the Schulthessdes Jardins in 2012, and it was a finalistfor the Rosa Barba Prize in the Barcelona Bienalde Paisaje this fall.

Please join me inwelcoming the 2016 Kylie Lecture, Georges Descombes.

Thank you, Anita.

Thank you for inviting me.

I'm very honored to give thislecture, the Kiley Lecture.

I should start with a fewwords on Kylie, what importance of Kylie's work for me.

It's not that I'm sofamiliar with his work, but some part of hiswork is a key element if I have understoodanything about gardens.

In the MillerGarden, for example, I find something which is key.

A word for me is what's a kindof intensity or interiority.

You were talkingabout the calm, but it can be also very violent.

But there is somethingvery special, and difficult to define what you feel whenyou– the same with apprentice and pupils maybe.


Around the pool,he did something.

The pool was there beforeHogg started to work on it.

And he made some movesthat would change it.

What is, for me, a line totry to understand what I feel or what I try to explainwould be a presence.

These gardens have apresence, and Walter Benjamin said an aura.

An aura, one of thedefinitions– Walter Benjamin's is the collisionof space and time.

In these gardens, Benjaminsaid, in front of these things, inside of these things, they arevery present and sometimes very far away.

They melt past and present.

So this is for me–Mr.

Kiley [FRENCH].

I am indebted to this.

There are not so manygardens like this, and it's not really themost trendy tracks today, I would say, thiskind of intensity.

But we can discuss this.

And I would like to call thislecture tonight– it's rather a conversation, I would say.

I would not dare to call it alecture in terms of academia.

I said, "Designinga River Garden," so I will come back on thisa while– a river garden.

Maybe it's not evenEnglish, river garden, but it sounds well,at least in French.

And I will call it "TheRiver and Its Double," so it's a river on a canal.

This was the situation,a canal built this part in the 20th century.

But there isupstream that started after a flood I show you inthe end of the 19th century.

You see here the formerriver, the original river short-circuitedby the new canal.

This was a landscape,or it's a drawing.

You imagine what could havebeen this traditional landscape at that point.

It's not difficult.

And they did that.

I mean, they justchanged radically.

They cleared thesite with carbon.

And they changed in theprocess of another kind of agricultural system.

For that, they have done400 kilometers of drainage.

I've no time to talkabout the drainage.

But Geneva, as aparticularity, you know, it was irreparablyProtestant in a very Catholic country, around France.

And that, in the19th century, they were absolutely fascinatingby the British industrial revolution.

And they bring backto Geneva– so they had a geographic magazine.

So as they were takingeverything from England in terms of innovation,the British or, rather, the Scots, have alreadyreformed the Romanish way of making drainage, andGeneva, the first drainage on the continent was done here.

These drawings also show[INAUDIBLE], I guess.

There are tools of the project.

Those are my drawings.

But just imagine something.

So it's the activatedpossibilities.

It could be– so is therealready a selection, they are not realistic, butthey are more than realistic.

They are more useful for me.

This is a region,the first image was a photographwith the mountains, the agricultural plane, andthe canal, which is here with a row of Italian poplar.

And this is a park in Lancy.

So it's really alifelong project if you add that I wasborn somewhere here, and that I play all my childhoodhere, around this spot here.

So the garden in Lancy, Iwould rather now term it garden than park in Lancybecause it's a very small park.

And I don't likeparks, in a way, talking about theconcentration– and well, we cancome back to this.

But let's say garden in Lancy.

And I show this because it'salready a double situation like the river andthe canal here.

We had to makeunderground foot passage.

But we were– this canalizationof the little rivulet, one meter wide.

When indeed thedrainage systems, they block the valleyhere with a new road.

And they put thecanal in a culvert.

So the client, thestate of Geneva, let's say, asked us to makea passage for the children, mainly, which wascrossing the talud, which is a tunnel situation.

If you cross amountain, it's a tunnel.

But to come from oneside of the river to the other side, whichis a bridge situation.

And we kept the bridgeand the tunnel together.

So we call it tunnelbridge– which maybe could be emblematicof our a way of doing.

We find the solution,but, in this solution, you can have the ideaof the problem which was existing before.

So the solution does noterase the combination– the problematicsituation [INAUDIBLE].

This is a Mt.

Saleve, thewatershed of the air.

And this river, which isa torrent– torrential– can be very drymost of time very, very little amount of water.

But quite often, orseveral times a year, it can be furious, like this.

And this is the onlyreturn of 30 years.

So you can imagine when,the Sentinel flood, it could be very disastrous.

So the state of Genevamade a competition.

But not so much–well, it's for what they called re-naturalization.

It's rather withecological purposes.

You know, this canal of the19th century, or 20th century, was perfectly working toget the flood downstream.

So you send theproblem to others.

But it's perfect, ina way, to preserve the situation of thefields, agriculture, it was a perfect device.

And we must not make toomany are not anachronisms– 80 years ago, therewas no fertilizer, so they had to producemore and to protect the field for agriculture.

So let's say that,for one century, this canal didits job very well.

But now, with thechange in the situation, in the way we see theseproblems, it had to be changed.

So there was acompetition that we won.

And we designed this.

So this is the canal.

And here, you seealready something which is predominantin our design problem.

You don't know howto draw a river.

Well, when the riverdoes not exist yet.

And in the competition,we did this.

And it was a veryhelpful drawing because when I presented thatin the early stage at Berkeley, Matt Kondolf, with afluvial geomorphology– its very clever– which isalso working with us, say, oh, I like your dancing river.

And this was important.

You said, Anita,but you also said that it must not be too long.

So I go like this.

We are not doing aproject without taking into consideration thedata who are there.

I mean, it's a routine.

It's necessary toselect in the path.

I will come back toevery kind of idea.

And this drawing, whichthree meters long, and not exactly the original, but–was in the archives of Geneva.

And I was, I think, thefirst to open the drawing after it was drawn in 1819.

So it's a very useful tool.

So these are presentedbecause the territory is full of projects.

But it's also full ofproject never executed.

So the people have soughtalready to shortcut the river.

Excuse me.

It's the same– wego with the water.

We send the water down.

But the interesting thing,for us, was this section.

So they did one thing.

What is surprising,what is extraordinary, is the simplicity,the efficiency of the engineer at that moment.

Not so many drawings.

Not so many blah, blah, blah.

But a very, very beautiful[FRENCH], length profile, and 135 transactions.

And did on two years.

So you can move.

If see that theriver, in certain– if you take thissection, we could see that the river movefrom 40 meters, for example, one year after.

So extremely interestingand beautiful drawings.

Once I talked with Aldovan Eyck, the architect.

He said, architects are verygood to organize professionally the intellectual meager.

The less you know, themore you draw, in a way.

You understand what I mean? You can hide your incompetencethrough tons of nice images.

And when you see thiscanal as it was existing, that's a preservation.

The only one problemis it [INAUDIBLE] was not drawn byLeonardo da Vinci.

Otherwise, we'd havekept it, not because it is so perfect, in a way.

It's a disaster interms of biology.

No exchanges with theunderground water.

You know that better than I.

But nevertheless, what to do? So these drawings weremade 20 years before we start to work on the canal.

It was for the park inLancy, the garden in Lancy.

Because, in a way,it's a straight line.

I don't want to come back tothe park in Lancy drawings.

But you know, this extension ofthe bridge, foot bridge, tunnel bridge, which is 100 meters longto cross a river of one meter rivulet, it's a kind ofextravagant dimension.

Certainly, it's thiskind of accentuation, intensificationcomes from this line.

There is a kind of adialogue between what is going on one kilometersahead and what we take.

But I will come back later.

But maybe it's betterto say that now.

One way of doingis to introduce, into a well known situation, ashock to renew the attention.

We are not soft.

We are maybe quiet, but softin a way that we are shy.

No, we are ambitious, not shy.

But we have alsoa good, I hope– we know the limit ofsituation, of capability.

But we try our best to introduceinto a too well known context something whichis shocking, which makes things strange, to renewthe attention, not everywhere, but some you will see that, allalong, it's always the same.

Actually, art is just like this.

And for mearchitecture, is an art, no discussion– or otherwiseit's bad architect.

And art is just to make visiblethe invisible, the ordinary.

I will come back.

A fantastic canal, eh? So this is a diagram.

You know, it's acompetition drawing.

And it's [INAUDIBLE].

So Gilles Deleuze,what is a diagram? I don't talk aboutdiagram in terms of semiology and [INAUDIBLE].

That's another chapter.

It's primarily a metaphoricuse of the world jack diagram introduced by Deleuzetalking about Francis Bacon painting.

And he said, adiagram is something which shows the place of theforces at work on a site, or on a painting.

There are forces, we callforces a lot of things.

But something isinvolved in the problem.

And you know, the drawings, thisdiagram, according to Deleuze, is a way of impeaching theforms to arrive too fast.

Not, I think too fast.

Because he said, there's nomystery of the white page.

Because the whitepage is never white.

It's full of cliches.

So as soon as youstart to work, you have all the automaticpilot of the cliche.

And you start to drawlike Adriaan Geuze or like– I don'tgive other names.

I said Adriaan Geuzebecause I like him.

So if I start to saysomething– you understand.

So diagram is a precautionto keep for a moment but indicating whereyou have to look for.

And it's very clear.

Our project had to workwith a canal and a new space for the river.

So this was reallyfirst sketch, not mine.

And when you start to drawto enter in the detail into complex data and so,this diagram is saying, hey, hey don't go awayof this combination.

And this was– so in thebrief, in the implicit brief of the competitionwas very clear.

You destroy the canal,which is a straight line, and, in nature, thereare no straight lines.

And you put the riverin the form of meanders.

That was clear.

And we said no.

We will keep thecanal, transform it, and we will shiftthe river parallel with the same wavelengthand amplitude, and the formermeander, but parallel.

I think, to have an historicalinterest in the constitution of a site does not mean thatan historical project is the one who goes back.

It's a bit simple.

And we have an extraordinaryhistorian, French historian, now, College de France,Patrick Boucheron.

He said, antiquitas, youhave to select in the past the active part of thepast that's useful for you.

Not all the past because youare buried under all this.

A lot of the pasthas just to be– maybe another partof the past will be useful for another project.

But in a project, you must find,it's a courage of a hypothesis.

I don't say we were right,but this canal, and the river, is better and toput back the river.

By the way, theyalways say there are no straight lines in nature.

But I tried a very, verylong to find an example.

But now I've seen,when I was driving, the sun behindthe clouds, I have seen that the rays of lightare pretty much straight.

And I think theyare natural, no? We said we will dothis combination of the form of canal transform.

We'll come back.

And a new– whatMatt Kondolf called a space of liberty, acorridor of [INAUDIBLE], when, you know, something–this is a double, or the river, and its double.

This is a ghost of the canal.

You feel for the river.

This is a project, it'sabout five, six kilometers.

Depends if you measure itlike this or like this.

We don't know howto measure a river.

It's impossible Now we are faced withdesigning this dancing river.

How do you do that? I'll come back now andtalk a bit on the river, for clarification,and then on the canal.

Well, the best thing todo is to get rid of humus.

It's 67, 70 centimeters.

And you let the water gointo– you don't do anything.

You help the river buterasing the humus layer.

And then the riverwill design itself.

And it goes quitefast, the river.

Because, otherwise, youhave two ways of designing a river– the engineer, let'ssay hydraulic engineers, there's a slope,a volume of water.

They will give you asinusoid, or depends.

They know how to draw it.

And we have thelandscape architects, who have another culture.

Let's say this is a scientific,so-called scientific, technique, rather.

And then you havethe cultural model, who we have all had a charming,meandering river, which is very beautiful indeed.

But how to do it? So the engineer usuallyuses very concrete blocks, or very solidthings, because they are sure that it doesn't move.

And we have a tendency touse green concrete– that means plants or things.

But the idea is the same.

The river must not move.

And as Matt Kondolf said, atthe first big flood, engineers and landscapearchitects, all the same, the river doesexactly what it does.

The problem is it takes time.

You know, a riverloves to design.

But they design whenthere is a flood.

Otherwise, they have not enoughvolume of water, and not enough strength to carry the sediment.

So we were questioned bythe environmentalists.

They said, well, it'svery nice, your trick.

But it's too long.

So they come back with amachine and make holes, put trunks, rocks, and startto make what we were avoiding.

So it's a kind of impatience.

So we were lookingfor something else.

So we were asked,could you find a way of accelerating the processof building the new riverbed.

And by chance, more or less, youknow, my knowledge of science is a bit– you read,and you say well, it may be quantique physique.

It's a bit like this.

It is impossible tounderstand exactly what is, for me, physique quantique.

And I think Niels Bohr said, ifsomeone tells you that is easy, that means that he doesnot understood anything.

So one Nobel prize,Pierre-Gilles de Gennes was working onpercolation systems, which is going through a porousmaterial of a liquid, which is exactly what is a river.

Gravel and water.

And the matrix ofindetermination.

It's a bit like that.

So they don't knowhow to– they don't know where the water will go.

But they prepare anhexagonal diagram, and the water issurprisingly– so it's a way to design without design.

And we try, on a Swiss device,with chocolate and milk.

Really, I thought,maybe it works if we do something like this.

So I was in my atelier, andwe took a block of chocolate.

And we tried to– andsaid maybe we could work.

And then we try on site.

So the surprise was that thefederal experts have accepted this, that was [INAUDIBLE].

I will come back.

So we had– the firstway of doing was here.

This was when we justtook the humus away.

And now we have onekilometers, more or less, here, of a new phase of building.

So we did that.

So it's the same.

So it's more than humus here.

But let's say the superficiallayer is taken away.

And gives a kind of plateau.

And then we startto draw and to dig.

So we made this [FRENCH].

And then we arrived to thiskind of, and this, and this.

And now, we were afraid.

Now, if the water comes,and she selects one, we will be fooled, really.

All this work for nothing.

It's making [INAUDIBLE].

Then well, theplanes above Geneva were backing us, in a way.

It's interesting.


John– where is he? I think they callit templum, which is, in Greece, the place whereyou could predict things.

The detail.

So the water arrived andwas very gently [INAUDIBLE].

And the erosion starts.

And there we found thatbecause, of course, its chocolate block was square.

And now this is a lozenge.

It's much betterfor the [INAUDIBLE].

And then we start to seethat the erosion is never at that peak, butalways on the side.

It's complicated.

I don't enter in detail.

And then we found, in anotherscientist, Ilya Prigogine and Isabelle Stengers, theycall it structural dissipative.

Dissipative structures.


And you find that also inLeonardo da Vinci, Tourbillon, the white pools,where it's always the head of thelozenge diverts water.

And the water turns onthe side and erodes.

You can see the evolution.

It is in one year.

And you see.

Now, we had very big problems–not with the federal experts, who accept– becausethey were not satisfied with the two precedentways of doing landscape architect– and scientists.

And they were looking forsome other way of doing.

But our own experts were saying,it's a delirium– le delire chocolatier.

The big fear of these guyswas, all the gravel goes down.

But it's not the case.

Matt Kondolf said a riverdoesn't go straight.

It takes the materialand puts it here.

They erode on[INAUDIBLE] and deposit.

So erosion deposits.

And now, we didn't have thatin mind at the beginning.

But it was veryinteresting in terms that we economizeda lot of excavation and taking away the earthon the site cost a lot.

And also, because if you takeall this away, which was there, I think, 60,000 cubic meters,could mean 6,000 trucks.

And the river needs thesematerials, these sediments.

So you make a double mistake.

It costs a lot,and you don't know what to do with thesediments you export.

And the river is askingfor this sediment.

So we were lucky enough.

And you see, very soon–so we made a graphic for the evolution.

But going into theriver information, it's extraordinary.

I mean, I could show youimages for– immediately, when you have water comingback here, life is coming back.

As you realize that wateris the source of life, you see flowers,insects, birds, fish.

And this process is muchbetter than the first solution because it's reallyaccelerating, and it's going.

You have pools andriffles immediately, after six months, which was notthe case in the first attempt.

So it's really an intriguingdevice, as you said, Mr.


Intriguing and working.

So when we pretend tohave a kind of laboratory touch in this project,so the monitoring is extremely important.

So we have survey with adraw and [INAUDIBLE] photo, and geometric on the site.

So we measure, andwe take an account of all the movementsof gravels, et cetera, to see if our machineis really working.

So here you seevery well the river with a new space of freedom,and the canal transformed.

The canal is transformed.

It was three metersdeep, the trapeze.

So we kept one meter–I'll show you that– deep.

And so we put earth on the twothirds of the canal's depth.

It's still a footprint.

A footprint is apermanent trace.

Animals make trace.

But footprint is a permanent,something which stays.

So we made, here, akind of footprint, which is a launching device.

So it's destinationis to disappear.

It's entropy [INAUDIBLE].

We were really anticipatingthe destruction.

So we are not really–you understood that.

And you see how theriver already built.

And when you have a flood,it's coming here, of course.

Now you see thesection of the canal.

And this canal becamea public space.

We say, this machines,the river and its double, we are faced now with asituation of environment, with water qualityshortage and so on.

So if the gardenhas always been, it's why we insist tosay it's not a park.

It's a garden.

Because, in the garden–I hope John is not going to correct me– thereis always leisure, pleasure, knowledge, and risk.

So we wanted thatpeople, in a way, would be here and look at whatis going on in this open air laboratory.

Why does it do that? Confrontation with theagricultural fields, still there with the[INAUDIBLE] coming with the pollution of water.

So this linear series ofgardens are really moments– I'll show you then– — whereyou can look at, realize, what is going on like apossibility to understand this experimentation.

So this is the canal which isstill taking all the surface water of the left side becausewe can't go to the river directly.

So we kept that.

And we introduced in the canalall traditional vocabulary of pergola and so on to have amoment where the people can sit in shadow, when it will bea bit more, with benches, and all the tra-la-la ofthe ordinary, decent garden.

But for a moment, for thisquestion of observation, a lot of people were,we want Belvedere, which is also a very classical–well you look at Belvedere.

You have an observatory.

So you can see that,maybe, here, you know, I have not so good slide.

But you see thesemountains are here.

If we use a depositpart of the digging here to make thisborrowed landscape.

So these hillswere also playing.

These people climb and seethe river, see the experiment.

But also, when they aredeeper in the canal, the profile of thenew dunes, or hills, are mimicking, doing the same,than the far away mountains.

So this problem of exportingyour borrowed landscape.

We already did it.

The use of footprint is really,in the metamorphosis evolution, the footprint isreally something.

The figure inside the moule,the footprint can move.

But the footprint gives you,always, an idea of the origin.

This is a permanenceof the transformation.

Something more that you canguess through this print that it was a bitlike this before.

We had to make aproject in Amsterdam.

An airplane crashedinto a building.

And so the footprintof the building was the evocation ofwhat happened here.

One of these blocks was here.

So going back, goingdown in the ground and then– I have notime to enter in detail how you would design all this.

But the fundamental things,the diagram, in that case, is a footprint.

Now you see what we havedone with– this image is a bit late.

Now the canal is here andthe you have this play with the Alps and the Saleve.

We had to also tocontrol the flood.

So we have some certaindike, this one here.

It's a dike here.

Topography is going down here,so if we have a big flood here, in this hole, 100 cubicmeters per second can go.

If there is more, therewill be a lake here.

Kind of a control of the floodto protect the city of Geneva down.

And this also wasn'tan occasion to have this interiority of a garden.

Suddenly, here, you are framed.

You don't see the agriculture.

You don't see the organization.

You are inside something.

And it's case where we makethis shock or strange situation, where we wanted to have acantilevered slab of concrete going up to the water, sokind of like an attraction that you can touch the water,smell that water, touch the water, listen to the water.

So these are very classicalthings you find in the garden.

Kind of an invitation,organization of the view of the [INAUDIBLE].

These thresholds arenot perpendicular.

They are oblique infront of this platform.

It's coming from aNoguchi in UNESCO garden.

Instead of having this parallelthreshold with a cascade, there is a walk forthe pedestrians.

So incline the cascadetowards the viewer.

It's a kind of signthat the river is not indifferent to the viewer.

And Noguchi is really,for me, also a reference that I like to consult.

And to make this very thinthing, it needs a lot of work.

And also Noguchi said, withlandscape architecture, when you draw, it's50% of the work.

The rest of the50% are on the site because you never knowexactly what you are going to find in the ground.

You know exactly the levels.

And the surprises are alsointeresting moment you know.

The building, themaking of the site takes you in a more interestingsituation than you imagined.

So you have to alsoto be attentive, to know what the site proposes.

And, for example, here,but I have nothing to say.

It's just a control ofwater, the theater of water, the play with it.

All this isnecessary to control, and it's not necessary tomake exactly this shape.

We have a kind of latitudeof interpretation of what we have to do and how we do it.

And sometimes it's surprising.

Depends in whichdirection you look at.

Reminds me Chatsworth,straight line, 17th century.

Now otherconsiderations are, you said we are quite–I hope you understood that we transformed things,taking and destroy something.

You already guessedthat, when I start to talk about theborrowed landscape, it's not exactlythe same vocabulary.

Or we enter in anotherconsideration of prospect vista which may be– Elissa Rosenbergwrote about Lancy, saying, it's about as the layeringof things and how the historicallayers of the site are expressed by the project.

It's not exactly picturesque.

It's rather– it's another,maybe, way of doing.

But here, it'ssomething special.

It's part of the project here.

We have a road comingfrom a little village.

And we have aspecial, here, place where, here, we'll seethat better after– there was a bridge here.

The river was doing like this–a former meander, coming here.

So this is the ruin or abridge, with just one side of the bridge remaining.

And this is going to– andMr.

Rousseau was there.

In the Confession, hesaid, when he was 17, he flew from his home,and his real life started.

He was in Confignon.

And Confignon is here.

And the bridge is here.

And the road I show you is here.

Now, as an architect, we said,are we ignoring completely Mr.

Rousseau afterhis importance in terms of a change ofthe appreciation of nature, the sublime, the 18th century.

So how to work with Rousseauwithout putting the a plaque with "Rousseau was here," whichwas not what we were looking.

So here is a bridge.

Now I had an idea.

Maybe it's a bad idea.

But I read again, evensometimes, for the first time, it depends on thebooks– Le Confession, Les Reveries du PromeneurSolitaire– all the books where Rousseau.

And I was underliningand taking away every time he was expressinghis sentiment towards nature.

So he likes rivers.

We have a river.

He likes ruins.

We have a ruin.

He likes trees, and, undertrees, a bench, and a fountain.

We make a fountain.

We have a bench.

He likes cherry trees.

We'll make a cherrytree orchard.

He likes blue flowers becauseit's a bit like Proust, when you see blue flowers,it's wow, when I was young, I ate blue flowers.

So our client was Rousseau.

And we also look at Laurent.

And you know, this is a river.

Well this is a sea,but we can say, well, it's more or lessthe same situation.

It's going down,and we have ruins.

So we made that.

And this is a fountain.

This is a bench.

These are trees, and so on.

You know, this is a Rousseau-istsituation with, here, even more– this isa form of bridge.

We change it with thevegetation, herb green, like in Stourhead, oreven in [INAUDIBLE].

So all this is abit– now, the people are not going tounderstand, maybe, if I don't explain you this.

So we had a discussion with Mr.

Hunt, John Hunt– John Dixon Hunt.

Are all these peoplegoing to Stourhead, knowing all the [INAUDIBLE],a Virgilian touch? Mr.

Tribe would say, no, today'signorant people, they have no idea why they did all this.


May be true, but, as Johnsaid, nevertheless, there are other thingsthat the monument.

There are topography,trees, flowers, sky, and, after all, Virgil wastalking about something.

Why we like Virgil? That's maybe a hypothesisyou can discuss.

But I have a tendency tothink that all Rousseau or Virgil were talkingabout things we like.

So if Rousseau said I likea tree, and you like a tree, you are near to him, evenif you don't read Rousseau.

What is the mostimportant, in a way? It's also to have a kindof [FRENCH] because today, we need, maybe, to slowdown and to take back to the very simple facts thatbe under a tree, on a bench, near a fountain, is important–more than having an abracadabra project, which is competingwith TV reality show.

And talking about takingtime, it's about a walk.

We have a lot of walk.

And you know, I wasin London, at the AA.

And in East London, I hadtaken this in '73, I think.

I loved these things.

The guy who designedthat– you know, it's absolutely notparallel to the canal.

It's a rambling.

So it's like, I don'twant metro, boulot, dodo.

No, no, you are not goingto make me directly go.

I want to ramble, totake my time, slow down.

And we make this[INAUDIBLE] Pierre LeGrain in Dorothee Imbert'sModernist Garden in France.

Pierre Legrain.

You have the zig-zag,the bench, and the trees.

And we found the situationourself, the same situation.

So it was a mixtureof London souvenir– I loved this surprisingdesign– and also Legrain.

Because usually,too often, you have these boring parallel tubesthat you have to follow, both sides the same.

Here, and we had exactlythe existing orchard hedge and zig-zag.

And my father was a bookseller.

And I remember becausePierre Legrain was also making beautiful [FRENCH].

And this is nearly my project.

Immoralist, Andre Gide.

And it's immoral.

So I've still, how much? Five minutes.

We'll finish on the walk.

This is a project, theSwiss Path, made in '91.

It was to commemorate the700th birth of the Swiss Confederation.

Around a lake, which is[FRENCH], 36 kilometers, a walk made by each canton.

We have 26 cantons.

And each canton had acertain segment length according to the number ofinhabitants, five millimeters by each inhabitant.

It included the foreigners.

And we had to dotwo kilometers here.

Now, we said, it's a bitlike the renaturalization.

There was an offer,a competition, and all the others, exceptPaulo Borghi and me, we projected on thisterritory all the grandeur of the countryside, the canton.

The import, and wesaid no, we would like to avoid the common[INAUDIBLE], blah, blah, blah, [FRENCH], and to say, weare going to understand your own territory.

So we are going to make a kindof archeology of the site.

We are going to goaway with bad things.

And we had a motto.

We will not add anythingwhich is not already there.

Because imagination,according to Baudelaire, is not a fantasy.

It's just to makevisible the things here, or another poet, Swiss-French,rather German-Swiss, Ludwig Hohl, he said, imaginationis not fantasy.

It's just a way to raise thetemperature of the existing things.

Or your William Carlos Williamssaid no ideas but in things.

So the things are here.

And it's up to you todo something with it.

This is what we callform imagination.

So to look at the paths it'slike the parallel lines, both sides of the paths.

Or you imagine that the pathsare always at the same thing.

So we had the people whoshow that, on the contrary, the path is alwayschanging its position.

Once it's yellowhere, and then red.

And so we work on this,showing, making visible, that the path washere and now here.

And when the stones onthe side were lacking, we put concrete stones.

So this was more or lesswhat we have done here, just underlying.

And we were alsoworking with artists.

This is Richard Long.

You know, for me,it's always a lesson that this work ofLong in the '70s is called brushing the path.

So he just took a brushand took off the leaves.

So I think it's agood way of designing.

He came here, and hemade a walk around.

I have no time to explain you.

It's another workof Richard Long.

You know, I am stilljealous of this work.

Because to be so, you know,where you said, we are not shy, we are not soft, becausethis is very rough to say, a cross in the flowers.

But it's done just tocutting the flowers away.

So it's just a deliberateclearing and a sign.

Richard Long is part, atleast at the beginning, in the '70, '69, of themovement Arte Povera.

And this is a lesson for usbecause Arte Povera attracted the attention ofmaterials without glory, situation without glory,everything ordinary.

That we can make sculpturewithout extravagant– and this attentionto what is not seen, usually, it's really, forme– I have to be brave, but you understand theconnection between what we are doing on the site, andthese movements, or [INAUDIBLE] saying everything isgood to make a project.

We don't have to say, ohno, this is disgusting because it's galvanized.

And so in this, always, thesame project, in Swiss Path, there devices to getrid of the water.

There were in wood, bythe army, by the way.

That must be the artistic themeof army, makes these very soft wooden things.

And we change itin steel, having in mind RichardSerra in Netherlands, where he made, usingthese kinds of materials, we could say, atthat moment also, it was part of–who are the artists? They are never the artists whodeclare that I'm a land artist, or I'm an Arte Povera artist.

But there is some [INAUDIBLE]in that case who said, they are workingwith the same mind.

That is, they takeordinary materials.

But when you seethis, I remember.

So this is the verysame with Mr.


When you arrive inthis wooden [FRENCH], the atmosphere isrough steel, rusted.

And it's so soft.

Now the colors.

Last, we had to get through withprotecting against the debris, the wooden tram ofarriving with the flood.

We have to put this grid into avoid that [INAUDIBLE] into the dike and thenmake a catastrophe.

Now, it's a wooded trunk.

And we were faced withone thing, very simple.

It's impossible tomake– the engineer said you make a straight line.

Impossible with a machine.

The ground is not perfect.

So everything wasgoing– one certainty, it will be nevera straight line.

So I start to think howto avoid a straight line.

It's the lastimage, don't worry.

So I put a [FRENCH] of aline, one meter of distance, which is thedistance in between.

And I asked to the office,do something not to straight.

And they started tomake a very soft curve.

And I said, thatdoes not matter.

We have not hadenough constraints.

So we have to have arule to make exception.

If you have no rules,you can't make exception.

You have a kind of veryimprecise and uninteresting form.

So I made this lineand put my [INAUDIBLE].

So my wife, she's an artist.

She came and said, no,Georges, you write music.

It was true.

It was like this at the end.

And I said, no, no.

But this reflectionof this artist.

I should go to see SteveReich or Philip Glass because they makerepetitive music.

Maybe they willrepetitive score.

And as usual, it's a caseof when you find something without knowing it.


You are looking for something,and you find something else.

There's a name.

And looking for this,I found this partition, which is exactly the 36 pillarshere with one meter here.

And it's by John Cage.

And the title of thepartitions is In a Landscape.

Now we really made this.

So this is a partition, a score.

And then you have this [FRENCH].

And you look.

They were playing the partition.

Thank you.


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